Figure 1. Overall structure of REMIND

Figure 1 provides an overview of the general structure of REMIND. The macro‐economic core of REMIND is a Ramsey‐type optimal growth model in which intertemporal global welfare is optimized subject to equilibrium constraints. It considers 11 world regions and explicitly represents trade in final goods, primary energy carriers, and, in the case of climate policy, emission allowances. It is formulated such that it yields a distinguished Pareto‐optimal solution which corresponds to the market equilibrium in the absence of non‐internalized externalities. For macro‐economic production, capital, labor and energy are considered as input factors. The macro‐economic output is available for investment into the macro‐economic capital stock, consumption, trade, and costs incurred from the energy system.

The macro‐economic core is hard‐linked to the energy system module. Economic activity results in demand for final energy such as transport energy, electricity, and non‐electric energy for the stationary end‐uses. The demand for final energy is determined via nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production function.

The energy system module considers endowments of exhaustible primary energy resources as well as renewable energy potentials. A substantial number (~50) of technologies are available for the conversion of primary energies to secondary energy carriers. Moreover, capacities for transport and distribution of secondary energy carriers for final end use are represented. The costs for the energy system, including investments into capacities, operation and maintenance costs as well as extraction and fuel costs appear in the macroeconomic budget function, thus reducing the amount of economic output available for consumption.

Relevant resources

Selected Journal Articles

  • Bertram C, Luderer G, Popp A, Minx JC, Lamb WF, Miodrag Stevanović, Humpenöder F, Giannousakis A, Kriegler E (2018) Targeted policies can compensate most of the increased sustainability risks in 1.5 °C mitigation scenarios. Environ Res Lett 13:064038 . doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/aac3ec

  • Kriegler E, Bertram C, Kuramochi T, Jakob M, Pehl M, Miodrag Stevanović, Höhne N, Luderer G, Minx JC, Fekete H, Hilaire J, Luna L, Alexander Popp, Steckel JC, Sterl S, Yalew AW, Dietrich JP, Edenhofer O (2018) Short term policies to keep the door open for Paris climate goals. Environ Res Lett 13:074022 . doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/aac4f1

  • Strefler J, Bauer N, Kriegler E, Popp A, Giannousakis A, Edenhofer O (2018) Between Scylla and Charybdis: Delayed mitigation narrows the passage between large-scale CDR and high costs. Environ Res Lett 13:044015 . doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/aab2ba

  • Kriegler E, Bauer N, Popp A, Humpenöder F, Leimbach M, Strefler J, Baumstark L, Bodirsky BL, Hilaire J, Klein D, Mouratiadou I, Weindl I, Bertram C, Dietrich J-P, Luderer G, Pehl M, Pietzcker R, Piontek F, Lotze-Campen H, Biewald A, Bonsch M, Giannousakis A, Kreidenweis U, Müller C, Rolinski S, Schultes A, Schwanitz J, Stevanovic M, Calvin K, Emmerling J, Fujimori S, Edenhofer O (2017) Fossil-fueled development (SSP5): An energy and resource intensive scenario for the 21st century. Global Environmental Change 42:297–315 . doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.05.015

  • Bertram C, Luderer G, Pietzcker RC, Schmid E, Kriegler E, Edenhofer O (2015) Complementing carbon prices with technology policies to keep climate targets within reach. Nature Clim Change 5:235–239 . doi: 10.1038/nclimate2514

  • Luderer G, Pietzcker RC, Bertram C, Kriegler E, Meinshausen M, Edenhofer O (2013) Economic mitigation challenges: how further delay closes the door for achieving climate targets. Environ Res Lett 8:034033 . doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/8/3/034033

  • Bauer N, Brecha RJ, Luderer G (2012) Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies. PNAS 109:16805–16810. doi:10.1073/pnas.1201264109
  • Bauer N, Baumstark L, Leimbach M (2012) The ReMIND-R model: the role of renewables in the low-carbon transformation - first best vs. second-best worlds. Climatic Change, DOI: 10.1007/s10584-011-0129-2
  • Leimbach M, Bauer N, Baumstark L, Edenhofer O (2010) Mitigation costs in a globalized world: climate policy analysis with REMIND-R. Environmental Modeling and Assessment 15, 155-173
  • Leimbach M, Bauer N, Baumstark L, Lüken M, Edenhofer O (2010) Technological change and international trade – Insights from REMIND. Special Issue of The Energy Journal, 31, 109-136