Bertram, C., Luderer, G., Creutzig, F., Bauer, N., Ueckerdt, F., Malik, A., Edenhofer, O., 2021. COVID-19-induced low power demand and market forces starkly reduce CO2 emissions. Nat. Clim. Chang.


Bauer, N., Bertram, C., Schultes, A., Klein, D., Luderer, G., Kriegler, E., Popp, A., Edenhofer, O., 2020. Quantification of an efficiency–sovereignty trade-off in climate policy. Nature 588, 261–266.

Bauer, N., Klein, D., Humpenöder, F., Kriegler, E., Luderer, G., Popp, A., Strefler, J., 2020. Bio-energy and CO2 emission reductions: an integrated land-use and energy sector perspective. Climatic Change.

Bauer, N., Rose, S.K., Fujimori, S., van Vuuren, D.P., Weyant, J., Wise, M., Cui, Y., Daioglou, V., Gidden, M.J., Kato, E., Kitous, A., Leblanc, F., Sands, R., Sano, F., Strefler, J., Tsutsui, J., Bibas, R., Fricko, O., Hasegawa, T., Klein, D., Kurosawa, A., Mima, S., Muratori, M., 2018. Global energy sector emission reductions and bioenergy use: overview of the bioenergy demand phase of the EMF-33 model comparison. Climatic Change.

Daioglou, V., Rose, S.K., Bauer, N., Kitous, A., Muratori, M., Sano, F., Fujimori, S., Gidden, M.J., Kato, E., Keramidas, K., Klein, D., Leblanc, F., Tsutsui, J., Wise, M., van Vuuren, D.P., 2020. Bioenergy technologies in long-run climate change mitigation: results from the EMF-33 study. Climatic Change.

Daioglou, V., Muratori, M., Lamers, P., Fujimori, S., Kitous, A., Köberle, A.C., Bauer, N., Junginger, M., Kato, E., Leblanc, F., Mima, S., Wise, M., van Vuuren, D.P., 2020. Implications of climate change mitigation strategies on international bioenergy trade. Climatic Change.

Muratori, M., Bauer, N., Rose, S.K., Wise, M., Daioglou, V., Cui, Y., Kato, E., Gidden, M., Strefler, J., Fujimori, S., Sands, R.D., van Vuuren, D.P., Weyant, J., 2020. EMF-33 insights on bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). Climatic Change 163, 1621–1637.

Rauner, S., Bauer, N., Dirnaichner, A., Dingenen, R.V., Mutel, C., Luderer, G., 2020. Coal-exit health and environmental damage reductions outweigh economic impacts. Nature Climate Change 10, 308–312.

Rose, S.K., Bauer, N., Popp, A., Weyant, J., Fujimori, S., Havlik, P., Wise, M., van Vuuren, D.P., 2020. An overview of the Energy Modeling Forum 33rd study: assessing large-scale global bioenergy deployment for managing climate change. Climatic Change 163, 1539–1551.

Zhang, S., Bauer, N., Yin, G., Xie, X., 2020. Technology learning and diffusion at the global and local scales: A modeling exercise in the REMIND model. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 151, 119765.


Meinshausen, M., Nicholls, Z.R.J., Lewis, J., Gidden, M.J., Vogel, E., Freund, M., Beyerle, U., Gessner, C., Nauels, A., Bauer, N., Canadell, J.G., Daniel, J.S., John, A., Krummel, P.B., Luderer, G., Meinshausen, N., Montzka, S.A., Rayner, P.J., Reimann, S., Smith, S.J., van den Berg, M., Velders, G.J.M., Vollmer, M.K., Wang, R.H.J., 2020. The shared socio-economic pathway (SSP) greenhouse gas concentrations and their extensions to 2500. Geosci. Model Dev. 13, 3571–3605.

Piontek, F., Kalkuhl, M., Kriegler, E., Schultes, A., Leimbach, M., Edenhofer, O., Bauer, N., 2019. Economic Growth Effects of Alternative Climate Change Impact Channels in Economic Modeling. Environ Resource Econ 73, 1357–1385.

Trutnevyte, E., Hirt, L.F., Bauer, N., Cherp, A., Hawkes, A., Edelenbosch, O.Y., Pedde, S., van Vuuren, D.P., 2019. Societal Transformations in Models for Energy and Climate Policy: The Ambitious Next Step. One Earth 1, 423–433.



Bauer, N., McGlade, C., Hilaire, J., Ekins, P., 2018. Divestment prevails over the green paradox when anticipating strong future climate policies. Nature Climate Change 8, 130–134.

Keller, D.P., Lenton, A., Scott, V., Vaughan, N.E., Bauer, N., Ji, D., Jones, C.D., Kravitz, B., Muri, H., Zickfeld, K., 2018. The Carbon Dioxide Removal Model Intercomparison Project (CDR-MIP): Rationale and experimental design. Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss. 2017, 1–72.

Kriegler, E., Luderer, G., Bauer, N., Baumstark, L., Fujimori, S., Popp, A., Rogelj, J., Strefler, J., Vuuren, D.P. van, 2018. Pathways limiting warming to 1.5°C: a tale of turning around in no time? Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 376, 20160457.

Schultes, A., Leimbach, M., Luderer, G., Pietzcker, R.C., Baumstark, L., Bauer, N., Kriegler, E., Edenhofer, O., 2018. Optimal international technology cooperation for the low-carbon transformation. Climate Policy 18, 1165–1176.

Strefler, J., Bauer, N., Kriegler, E., Popp, A., Giannousakis, A., Edenhofer, O., 2018. Between Scylla and Charybdis: Delayed mitigation narrows the passage between large-scale CDR and high costs. Environ. Res. Lett. 13, 044015.

Strefler, J., Amann, T., Bauer, N., Kriegler, E., Hartmann, J., 2018. Potential and costs of carbon dioxide removal by enhanced weathering of rocks. Environmental Research Letters 13, 034010.



Bauer, N., Calvin, K., Emmerling, J., Fricko, O., Fujimori, S., Hilaire, J., Eom, J., Krey, V., Kriegler, E., Mouratiadou, I., Sytze de Boer, H., van den Berg, M., Carrara, S., Daioglou, V., Drouet, L., Edmonds, J.E., Gernaat, D., Havlik, P., Johnson, N., Klein, D., Kyle, P., Marangoni, G., Masui, T., Pietzcker, R.C., Strubegger, M., Wise, M., Riahi, K., van Vuuren, D.P., 2017. Shared Socio-Economic Pathways of the Energy Sector – Quantifying the Narratives. Global Environmental Change 42, 316–330.

Kriegler, E., Bauer, N., Popp, A., Humpenöder, F., Leimbach, M., Strefler, J., Baumstark, L., Bodirsky, B.L., Hilaire, J., Klein, D., Mouratiadou, I., Weindl, I., Bertram, C., Dietrich, J.-P., Luderer, G., Pehl, M., Pietzcker, R., Piontek, F., Lotze-Campen, H., Biewald, A., Bonsch, M., Giannousakis, A., Kreidenweis, U., Müller, C., Rolinski, S., Schultes, A., Schwanitz, J., Stevanovic, M., Calvin, K., Emmerling, J., Fujimori, S., Edenhofer, O., 2017. Fossil-fueled development (SSP5): An energy and resource intensive scenario for the 21st century. Global Environmental Change 42, 297–315.

Riahi, K., van Vuuren, D.P., Kriegler, E., Edmonds, J., O’Neill, B.C., Fujimori, S., Bauer, N., Calvin, K., Dellink, R., Fricko, O., Lutz, W., Popp, A., Cuaresma, J.C., KC, S., Leimbach, M., Jiang, L., Kram, T., Rao, S., Emmerling, J., Ebi, K., Hasegawa, T., Havlik, P., Humpenöder, F., Da Silva, L.A., Smith, S., Stehfest, E., Bosetti, V., Eom, J., Gernaat, D., Masui, T., Rogelj, J., Strefler, J., Drouet, L., Krey, V., Luderer, G., Harmsen, M., Takahashi, K., Baumstark, L., Doelman, J.C., Kainuma, M., Klimont, Z., Marangoni, G., Lotze-Campen, H., Obersteiner, M., Tabeau, A., Tavoni, M., 2017. The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways and their energy, land use, and greenhouse gas emissions implications: An overview. Global Environmental Change 42, 153–168.



Bauer, N., Hilaire, J., Brecha, R.J., Edmonds, J., Jiang, K., Kriegler, E., Rogner, H.-H., Sferra, F., 2016. Assessing global fossil fuel availability in a scenario framework. Energy 111, 580–592.

Bauer, N., Mouratiadou, I., Luderer, G., Baumstark, L., Brecha, R.J., Edenhofer, O., Kriegler, E., 2016. Global fossil energy markets and climate change mitigation – an analysis with REMIND. Climatic Change 136, 69–82.

Cherp, A., Jewell, J., Vinichenko, V., Bauer, N., De Cian, E., 2016. Global energy security under different climate policies, GDP growth rates and fossil resource availabilities. Climatic Change 136, 83–94.

Jewell, J., Vinichenko, V., McCollum, D., Bauer, N., Riahi, K., Aboumahboub, T., Fricko, O., Harmsen, M., Kober, T., Krey, V., Marangoni, G., Tavoni, M., van Vuuren, D.P., van der Zwaan, B., Cherp, A., 2016. Comparison and interactions between the long-term pursuit of energy independence and climate policies. Nature Energy 1, 16073.

Jewell, J., Cherp, A., Vinichenko, V., Bauer, N., Kober, T., McCOLLUM, D., Van Vuuren, D.P., Van Der Zwaan, B., 2013. ENERGY SECURITY OF CHINA, INDIA, THE E.U. AND THE U.S. UNDER LONG-TERM SCENARIOS: RESULTS FROM SIX IAMs. Clim. Change Econ. 04, 1340011.

Kriegler, E., Mouratiadou, I., Luderer, G., Bauer, N., Brecha, R.J., Calvin, K., Cian, E.D., Edmonds, J., Jiang, K., Tavoni, M., Edenhofer, O., 2016. Will economic growth and fossil fuel scarcity help or hinder climate stabilization? Climatic Change 1–16.

Mouratiadou, I., Luderer, G., Bauer, N., Kriegler, E., 2016. Emissions and their drivers: sensitivity to economic growth and fossil fuel availability across world regions. Climatic Change 136, 23–37.



Bauer, N., Bosetti, V., Hamdi-Cherif, M., Kitous, A., McCollum, D., Méjean, A., Rao, S., Turton, H., Paroussos, L., Ashina, S., Calvin, K., Wada, K., van Vuuren, D., 2015. CO2 emission mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 90, 243–256.

Bauer, N., 2015. Power systems: Carbon negative at the regional level. Nature Clim. Change 5, 196–197.

Arroyo-Currás, T., Bauer, N., Kriegler, E., Schwanitz, V.J., Luderer, G., Aboumahboub, T., Giannousakis, A., Hilaire, J., 2015. Carbon leakage in a fragmented climate regime: The dynamic response of global energy markets. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 90, Part A, 192–203.

Broehm, M., Strefler, J., Bauer, N., 2015. Techno-Economic Review of Direct Air Capture Systems for Large Scale Mitigation of Atmospheric CO2. SSRN Journal.

Kriegler, E., Riahi, K., Bauer, N., Schwanitz, V.J., Petermann, N., Bosetti, V., Marcucci, A., Otto, S., Paroussos, L., Rao, S., Arroyo Currás, T., Ashina, S., Bollen, J., Eom, J., Hamdi-Cherif, M., Longden, T., Kitous, A., Méjean, A., Sano, F., Schaeffer, M., Wada, K., Capros, P., P. van Vuuren, D., Edenhofer, O., 2015. Making or breaking climate targets: The AMPERE study on staged accession scenarios for climate policy. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 90, Part A, 24–44.

Hilaire, J., Bauer, N., Brecha, R.J., 2015. Boom or bust? Mapping out the known unknowns of global shale gas production potential. Energy Economics 49, 581–587.

Kriegler, E., Riahi, K., Bauer, N., Schwanitz, V.J., Petermann, N., Bosetti, V., Marcucci, A., Otto, S., Paroussos, L., Rao-Skirbekk, S., Currás, T.A., Ashina, S., Bollen, J., Eom, J., Hamdi-Cherif, M., Longden, T., Kitous, A., Méjean, A., Sano, F., Schaeffer, M., Wada, K., Capros, P., van Vuuren, D.P., Edenhofer, O., Bertram, C., Bibas, R., Edmonds, J., Johnson, N., Krey, V., Luderer, G., McCollum, D., Jiang, K., 2015. A short note on integrated assessment modeling approaches: Rejoinder to the review of “Making or breaking climate targets — The AMPERE study on staged accession scenarios for climate policy.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 99, 273–276.

Ludig, S., Schmid, E., Haller, M., Bauer, N., 2015. Assessment of transformation strategies for the German power sector under the uncertainty of demand development and technology availability. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 46, 143–156.

van Sluisveld, M.A.E., Harmsen, J.H.M., Bauer, N., McCollum, D.L., Riahi, K., Tavoni, M., Vuuren, D.P. van, Wilson, C., Zwaan, B. van der, 2015. Comparing future patterns of energy system change in 2 °C scenarios with historically observed rates of change. Global Environmental Change 35, 436–449.

Ueckerdt, F., Brecha, R., Luderer, G., Sullivan, P., Schmid, E., Bauer, N., Böttger, D., Pietzcker, R., 2015. Representing power sector variability and the integration of variable renewables in long-term energy-economy models using residual load duration curves. Energy 90, Part 2, 1799–1814.

McJeon H, Edmonds J, Bauer N,  Clarke L, Fisher B, Flannery BP, Hilaire J, Krey V, Marangoni G, Mi R, Riahi K, ,Rogner HH, Tavoni M (2014) Limited impact on decadal-scale climate change from increased use of natural gas. Nature 514:482-485.

Klein D, Bauer N, Humpenöder F, Popp A (2014) The global economic long-term potential of modern biomass under full land-use competition. Environmental Research Letters 9(7): 074017.

Aboumahboub T, Luderer G, Kriegler E, Leimbach M, Bauer N, Pehl M, Baumstark L (2014) On the regional distribution of climate mitigation costs: the impact of delayed cooperative action. Climate Change Economics, 5(1): 1440002.

Bauer N, Mouratiadou I, Luderer G, Baumstark L, Brecha RJ, Kriegler E, Edenhofer O (2014) Global fossil energy markets and Climate Change Mitigation: an analysis with ReMIND. Climatic Change in press. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-013-0901-6

Cherp A, Jewell J, Vinichenko V, Bauer N, DeCian E (2014) Global Energy Security under Different Climate Policies, GDP Growth and Fossil Fuel Availabilities. Climatic Change, in press. DOI 10.1007/s10584-013-0950-x

Jewell J, Cherp A, Vinichenko V, Bauer N, Kober T, McCollum D, van Vuuren D, van der Zwaan B (2014) Energy security of China, India, the E.U. and the U.S. under long--‐ term scenarios: Results From six IAMs. Climate Change Economics, 4(4): 1340011.

Klein D, Luderer G, Kriegler E, Strefler J, Nico Bauer N, Leimbach M, Popp A, Dietrich JP, Humpenöder F, Lotze-Campen H, Edenhofer O (2014) The value of bio-energy in low stabilization scenarios: an assessment using ReMIND-MAgPIE. Climatic Change, 123:705-18. DOI 10.1007/s10584-013-0940-z

McCollum DL, Bauer N, Calvin K, Kitous A, Riahi K (2014): Fossil resource and energy security dynamics in conventional carbon-constrained worlds. Climatic Change, 123:413-426. DOI 10.1007/s10584-013-0939-5

Popp A, Rose S, Calvin K, van Vuuren DP, Dietrich JP, Wise Marshall, Stehfest E, Humpenöder F, Kyle P, van Vliet J, Bauer N, Lotze-Campen H, Klein D, Kriegler E (2014) Land-use transition for bio-energy and climate stabilization: model comparison of drivers, impacts, and interactions with other land use based mitigation options. Climatic Change 123:495-509. DOI 10.1007/s10584-013-0926-x

Zhang S, Bauer N (2013) Utilization of the non-fossil fuel target and its implications in China. Climate Policy 13(3):328-44.

Zhang S, Bauer N, Luderer G, Kriegler E (2014) Role of technologies in energy-related CO2 mitigation in China within a climate-protection world: a scenarios analysis using ReMIND. Applied Energy 115: 445-55.

Wilson C, Grübler A, Bauer N, Krey V, Riahi K (2012): Future Capacity Growth of Energy Technologies: Are Scenarios Consistent with Historical Evidence? Climatic Change 118:381–395.  DOI 10.1007/s10584-012-0618-y

Bauer N, Brecha RJ, Luderer G (2012) Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies. PNAS 109(42): 16805-10.

Bauer, N., Baumstark, L., Leimbach, M. (2012): The REMIND-R model: the role of renewables in the low-carbon transformation - first-best vs. second-best worlds. Climatic Change 114:145-68.

Luderer L, Pietzcker RC, Kriegler E, Haller M, Bauer N (2012): Asia’s Role in Mitigating Climate Change: A Technology and Sector Specific Analysis with ReMIND-R. Energy Economics 34(supp.3), S378-90.

Hübler, M., Baumstark, L., Leimbach, M., Bauer, N., Edenhofer, O. (2012): An Integrated Assessment Model with Endogenous Growth. Ecological Economics 83:118-31.

Haller, M., Ludig, S., Bauer, N. (2012): Decarbonization scenarios for the EU and MENA power system: Considering spatial distribution and short term dynamics of renewable generation. Energy Policy, 47, 282-90,

Creutzig, F., von Stechow, C., Klein, D., Hunsberger, C., Bauer, N., Popp, A., Edenhofer, O. (2012): Can bioenergy assessments deliver? Economics of Energy & Environmental Policy, 1, 2

Haller, M., Ludig, S., Bauer, N. (2012): Bridging the scales: A conceptual model for coordinated expansion of renewable power generation, transmission and storage. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 5, 16, 2687-2695

Popp, A., Krause, M., Dietrich, J. P., Lotze-Campen, H., Leimbach, M., Beringer, T., Bauer, N. (2012): Additional CO2 emissions from land use change - forest conservation as a precondition for sustainable production of second generation bioenergy. Ecological Economics, 74, 64-70

Klein, D., Bauer, N., Bodirsky, B., Dietrich, J. P., Popp, A. (2011): Bio-IGCC with CCS as a long-term mitigation option in a coupled energy-system and land-use model. Energy Procedia, 4, 2933-2940

Ludig, S., Haller, M., Bauer, N. (2011): Tackling long-term climate change together: The case of flexible CCS and fluctuating renewable energy. Energy Procedia, 4, 2580-2587

Ludig, S., Haller, M., Schmid, E., Bauer, N. (2011): Fluctuating renewables in a long-term climate change mitigation strategy. Energy, 36, 11, 6674-6685

Lüken, M., Edenhofer, O., Knopf, B., Leimbach, M., Luderer, G., Bauer, N. (2011): The role of technological availability for the distributive impacts of climate change mitigation policy. Energy Policy, 39(10):6030-39

Popp, A., Dietrich, J. P., Lotze-Campen, H., Klein, D., Bauer, N., Krause, M., Beringer, T., Gerten, D., Edenhofer, O. (2011): The economic potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation with special attention given to implications for the land system. Environmental Research Letters, 6, 034017

Popp, A., Lotze-Campen, H., Leimbach, M., Knopf, B., Beringer, T., Bauer, N., Bodirsky, B. (2011): On sustainability of bioenergy production: integrating co-emissions from agricultural intensification. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35, 12, 4770-4780

Edenhofer, O., Knopf, B., Leimbach, M., Bauer, N. (2010): ADAM's modeling comparison project - intentions and prospects. The Energy Journal, 31, Special Issue 1, 7-10

Leimbach, M., Bauer, N., Baumstark, L., Edenhofer, O. (2010): Mitigation costs in a globalized world: climate policy analysis with REMIND-R. Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 15, 155-173

Leimbach, M., Bauer, N., Baumstark, L., Lüken, M., Edenhofer, O. (2010): Technological change and international trade - Insights from REMIND-R. The Energy Journal, 31, Special Issue 1, 109-136

Bauer, N., Edenhofer, O., Leimbach, M. (2009): Low-stabilisation scenarios and technologies for carbon capture and sequestration In: (Ed.) Energy Procedia ; 1(1), (9th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (Washington,DC 2009)). 4031-4038

Bauer, N., Edenhofer, O., Kypreos, S. (2008): Linking energy system and macroeconomic growth models. Journal of Computational Management Science, 5, 1-2, 95-117

Edenhofer, O., Lessmann, K., Bauer, N. (2006): Mitigation strategies and costs of climate protection: The effects of ETC in the hybrid model MIND. The Energy Journal. A Special issue: Endogenous technological change and the economics of atmospheric stabilisation, 207-222

Edenhofer, O., Bauer, N., Kriegler, E. (2005): The impact of technological change on climate protection and welfare: Insights from the model MIND. Ecological Economics, 54, 2-3, 277-292

Edenhofer, O., Lessmann, K., Bauer, N., Held, H. (2005): Climate protection! A new energy policy?. Vierteljahreshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung, 74, 2, 137-147

Edenhofer, O., Schellnhuber, H. J., Bauer, N. (2004): Der Lohn des Mutes. Gestaltungsspielräume für eine internationale Klima- und Energiepolitik. Internationale Politik, 59, 8, 29-38

Edenhofer, O., Schellnhuber, H. J., Bauer, N. (2004): Risks and opportunities of planet protection. Internationale Politik. Transatlantic Edition, 5, 4, 61-68