Dr Marian Leimbach



Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK)
T +49 (0)331 288 2556
P.O. Box 60 12 03
14412 Potsdam


  • Integrated assessment of climate change (ICLIPS and REMIND model)
  • Macro-economic modelling
  • Mathematical programming (with GAMS ) of large-scale systems
  • Endogenous economic growth, structural change and capital market imperfections


Leimbach, M., M. Hübler, H. Mahlkow, L. Montrone, E. Bukin, G. Felbermayr, M. Kalkuhl, J. Koch, M. Marcolino, F. Pothen, J. C. Steckel (2024). Macroeconomic structural change likely increases inequality in India more than climate policy. Environmental Research Letters 19, 044070.DOI 10.1088/1748-9326/ad34e9


Koch, J., Leimbach, M. (2023): SSP economic growth projections: Major changes of key drivers in integrated assessment modelling. - Ecological Economics, 206, 107751.

Leimbach, M., Marcolino, M. A., Koch, J. (2023): Structural change scenarios within the SSP framework. - Futures, 150, 103156.

van der Wijst, K.-I., Bosello, F., Dasgupta, S., Drouet, L., Emmerling, J., Hof, A., Leimbach, M., Parrado, R., Piontek, F., Standardi, G., van Vuuren, D. (2023): New damage curves and multimodel analysis suggest lower optimal temperature. - Nature Climate Change, 13, 434-441.


Leimbach, M., Bauer, N. (2022). Capital markets and the costs of climate policies. Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, 24, 3, 397-420.


Baumstark, L., Bauer, N., Benke, F., Bertram, C., Bi, S., Gong, C. C., Dietrich, J. P., Dirnaichner, A., Giannousakis, A., Hilaire, J., Klein, D., Koch, J., Leimbach, M., Levesque, A., Madeddu, S., Malik, A., Merfort, A., Merfort, L., Odenweller, A., Pehl, M., Pietzcker, R. C., Piontek, F., Rauner, S., Dias Bleasby Rodrigues, R., Rottoli, M., Schreyer, F., Schultes, A., Sörgel, B., Sörgel, D., Strefler, J., Ueckerdt, F., Kriegler, E., Luderer, G. (2021): REMIND2.1: transformation and innovation dynamics of the energy-economic system within climate and sustainability limits. - Geoscientific Model Development, 14, 10, 6571-6603.

Sörgel, B., Kriegler, E., Weindl, I., Rauner, S., Dirnaichner, A., Ruhe, C., Hofmann, M., Bauer, N., Bertram, C., Bodirsky, B. L., Leimbach, M., Leininger, J., Levesque, A., Luderer, G., Pehl, M., Wingens, C., Baumstark, L., Beier, F., Dietrich, J. P., Humpenöder, F., von Jeetze, P. J., Klein, D., Koch, J., Pietzcker, R. C., Strefler, J., Lotze-Campen, H., Popp, A. (2021): A sustainable development pathway for climate action within the UN 2030 Agenda. - Nature Climate Change, 11, 8, 656-664.

Sörgel, B., Kriegler, E., Bodirsky, B. L., Bauer, N., Leimbach, M., Popp, A. (2020): Combining ambitious climate policies with efforts to eradicate poverty. Nature Communications 12, 2342. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22315-9

Keppo, I., I Butnar, N Bauer, M Caspani, O Edelenbosch, J Emmerling, P Fragkos, C Guivarch, M Harmsen, J Lefèvre, T Le Gallic, M Leimbach, W McDowall, J-F Mercure, R Schaeffer, E Trutnevyte F Wagner. Exploring the possibility space: taking stock of the diverse capabilities and gaps in integrated assessment models. Environmental Research Letters 16, 053006. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/abe5d8


Foure, J., Aguiar, A., Bibas, R., Chateau, J., Fujimori, S., Lefevre, J., Leimbach, M., Rey-Los-Santos, L., Valin, H. (2020): Macroeconomic drivers of baseline scenarios in dynamic CGE models: review and guidelines proposal. Journal of Global Economic Analysis, 5, 1, 28-62.


Leimbach, M.,  Giannousakis, A. (2019): Burden sharing of climate change mitigation: global and regional challenges under shared socio-economic pathways. Climatic Change 155: 273-291. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-019-02469-8

Warren R.F., Edwards N.R., Babonneau, F., Bacon, P.M., Dietrich, J.-P., Ford, R.W., Garthwaite, P.,Gerten, D., Goswami, S., Haurie, A., Hiscock, K., Holden, P.B., Hyde, M.R., , Joshi, S.R., Kanudia, A., Labriet, M., Leimbach, M., Oyebamiji, O.K., Osborn, T., Pizzileo, B., Popp, A., Price, J.,Riley, G.D., Schaphoff, S., Vielle, M., Wallace, C. (2019): Producing Policy-relevant Science by Enhancing Robustness and model Integration for the Assessment of Global Environmental Change. Environmental Modelling & Software 111, 248-258.

Piontek, F., Kalkuhl, M., Kriegler, E., Schultes, A., Leimbach, M., Edenhofer, O., Bauer, N. (2019): Economic Growth Effects of Alternative Climate Change Impact Channels in Economic Modeling. Environmental and Resource Economics 73, 1357-1385. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10640-018-00306-7


Schultes, A.; Leimbach, M.; Luderer, G.; Pietzker, R. C.; Baumstark, L.; Bauer, N.; Kriegler, E.; Edenhofer, O. (2018): Optimal international technology cooperation for the low-carbon transformation. Climate Policy 18, 1165-1176.

Leimbach, M., Roming, N., Shultes, A., Schwerhoff, G. (2018): Long-term development perspectives of Sub-Saharan Africa under climate policies. Ecological Economics 144, 148-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.02.005


Leimbach, M., Schultes, A., Baumstark, L., Giannousakis, A., Luderer, G. (2017): Solution algorithms of large‐scale Integrated Assessment models on climate change. Annals of Operations Research 255, Issue 1–2, 29–45. doi:10.1007/s10479-016-2340-z.

Leimbach, M., Kriegler, E., Roming, N., Schwanitz, J. (2017). Future growth pattern of world regions – a GDP scenario approach. Global Environmental Change 42, 215-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.02.005

Kriegler, E.; Bauer, N.; Popp, A.; Humpenöder, F.; Leimbach, M.; Strefler, J.; Baumstark, L.; Bodirsky, B.; Hilaire, J.; Klein, D.; Mouratiadou, I.; Weindl, I.; Bertram, C.; Dietrich, J.-P.; Luderer, G.; Pehl, M.; Pietzcker, R.; Piontek, F.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Biewald, A.; Bonsch, M.; Giannousakis, A.; Kreidenweis, U.; Müller, C.; Rolinski, S.; Schultes, A.; Schwanitz, J.; Stevanovic, M.; Calvin, K.; Emmerling, J.; Fujimori, S.; Edenhofer, O. (2017): Fossil-fueled development (SSP5): an energy and resource intensive scenario for the 21st century. Global Environmental Change 42, 297-315. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.05.015

Riahi, K.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Kriegler, E.; Edmonds, J.; O'Neill, B.; Fujimori, S.; Bauer, N.; Calvin, K.; Dellink, R.; Fricko, O.; Lutz, W.; Popp, A.; Cuaresma, J. C.; Samir, K. C.; Leimbach, M.; Jiang, L.; Kram, T.; Rao, S.; Emmerling, J.; Ebi, K.; Hasegawa, T.; Havlik, P.; Humpenöder, F.; da Silva, L. A.; Smith, S.; Stehfest, E.; Bosetti, V.; Eom, J.; Gernaat, D.; Krey, V.; Luderer, G.; Harmsen, M.; Takahashi, K.; Baumstark, L.; Doelman, J.; Kainuma, M.; Klimont, Z.; Maragoni, G.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Obersteiner, M.; Tabeau, A.; Tavoni, M. The shared socioeconomic pathways and their energy, land use, and greenhouse gas emissions implications: An overview. Global Environmental Change 42, 153-168. 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.05.009


Leimbach, M., Labriet, M., Bonsch, M., Dietrich, J.P., Kanudia, A., Mouratiadou, I., Popp, A., Klein, D. (2016): Robust strategies of climate change mitigation in interacting energy, economy and land use systems. Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management 8 (5).


Leimbach, M., Baumstark, L., Luderer, G. (2015): The role of time preferences in explaining the long-term pattern of international trade. Global Economy Journal 15(1): 83-106. DOI: 10.1515/gej-2014-0035


Aboumahboub, T., Luderer, G., Kriegler, E., Leimbach, M., Bauer, N., Pehl, M., Baumstark, L (2014): On the regional distribution of climate change mitigation costs: the impact of delayed cooperative action. Climate Change Economics 5(1), 1440002. doi: 10.1142/S2010007814400028

Klein D., Luderer G., Kriegler E., Strefler J., Bauer N., Leimbach M., Popp A., Dietrich J.P., Humpenöder F., Lotze-Campen H., Edenhofer O. (2013): The value of bioenergy in low stabilization scenarios: an assessment using ReMIND-MAgPIE. Climatic Change 123, 705-718. doi 10.1007/s10584-013-0940-z



Popp, a., M. Krause, J. P. Dietrich, H. Lotze-Campen, M.leimbach, T. Beringer, N. Bauer (2012): Additional CO2 emissions from land use change - forest conservation as precondition for sustainable production of second generation bioenergy. Ecological Economics 74, 64-70.

Bauer, N., L. Baumstark, M. Leimbach (2012): The REMIND-R model: the role of renewables in the low-carbon transformation - first-best vs. second.best worlds. Climatic Change 114, 145-168.

Luderer, G., V. Bosetti, M. Jakob, M. Leimbach, J. Steckel, H. Waisman, O. Edenhofer (2012): The economics of decarbonizing the energy system - results and insights from the RECIPE model intercomparison. Climatic Change 114, 9-37.

Luderer, G., E. deCian, J.-C. Hourcade, M. Leimbach, H. Waisman, O. Edenhofer (2012): On the regional distribution of mitigation costs in a global cap-and-trade system. Climatic Change 114, 59-78.

Huebler, M., L. Baumstark, M. Leimbach, N.Bauer, O. Edenhofer (2012).   An integrated assessment model with endogenous growth, Ecological Economics 83, 118-131.


Leimbach, M.,  A. Popp, H. Lotze-Campen, N. Bauer, J. P. Dietrich, D. Klein (2011): Integrated assessment models - the interplay of climate change, agriculture and land use in a policy tool. In: A. Dinar and  R. Mendelsohn (eds.), Handbook on Climate Change and Agriculture. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, 204-229.

Huebler, M., L. Baumstark, M. Leimbach, N.Bauer, O. Edenhofer (2011).   An Integrated Assessment Model with Endogenous Growth, Working-Paper, PIK, pp.35.

Lüken, M., O.Edenhofer, B. Knopf, M.Leimbach, G. Luderer, N. Bauer (2011). The role of technological availability for the distributive impacts of climate change mitigation policy. Energy Policy 39, 6030-6039.

Popp A., Lotze-Campen, H., Leimbach M., Knopf B.,  Beringer, T., Bauer N., Bodirsky B. On sustainability of bio-energy production: integrating co-emissions from agricultural intensification, Biomass & Bioenergy 35, 4770-4780.


Marian Leimbach, Nico Bauer, Lavinia Baumstark, Ottmar Edenhofer (2010): Mitigation costs in a globalized world: climate policy analysis with REMIND-R. Environmental Modeling and Assessment 15, 155-173.

Marian Leimbach, Nico Bauer, Lavinia Baumstark, Michael Lüken, Ottmar Edenhofer (2010): Technological Change and International Trade: Insights from REMIND-R. The Energy Journal 31, Special Issue, 109-136.

O. Edenhofer, B. Knopf, T. Barker, L. Baumstark, E. Bellevrat, B. Chateau, P. Criqui, M. Isaac, A. Kitous, S. Kypreos, M. Leimbach, K. Lessmann, B. Magne, S. Scrieciu, H. Turton, D. van Vuuren (2010): The Economics of Low Stabilization: Model Comparison of Mitigation Strategies and Costs. The Energy Journal 31, Special Issue on The Economics of Low Stabilization, 11-48.

Ottmar Edenhofer, Brigitte Knopf, Marian Leimbach, Nico Bauer (2010): ADAM's Modeling Comparison Project - Intentions and Prospects. The Energy Journal 31, Special Issue on The Economics of Low Stabilization, 7-10.

Marian Leimbach, Lavinia Baumstark (2010): The impact of capital trade and technological spillovers on climate policies. Ecological Economics 69, 2341-2355.


Marian Leimbach and Klaus Eisenack (2009): A Trade algorithm for Multi-region Models Subject to Spillover Externalities. Computational Economics 33, pp. 107-130.

Marian Leimbach and Ottmar Edenhofer (2007): Technological spillovers in multi-region models: Intertemporal optimization beyond the Negishi approach, Economic Modelling 24, pp. 272-294.

Ina Meyer, Marian Leimbach and Carlo Jaeger (2007): International passenger transport and climate change: A sector analysis in car demand and associated CO2 emissions from 2000 to 2050, Energy Policy 35, pp. 6332-6345.

Jürgen Scheffran and Marian Leimbach (2006): Policy-business interaction in emissions trading between multiple regions, in: Antes, R., Hansjürgens, B., Lemathe, P. (eds.) Emissions Trading and Bussiness, Physica-Verlag, Heidelberg, pp. 353-367.


Marian Leimbach and Carlo Jaeger (2004): A modular approach to Integrated Assessment modeling, Environmental Modelling and Assessment 9, 207-220.



Marian Leimbach (2003): Equity and carbon emissions trading: a model analysis, Energy Policy 31, pp. 1033-1044.

Marrian Leimbach and Ferenc L. Toth (2003): Economic Development and Emission Control over the Long Term: The ICLIPS Aggregated Economic Model, Climatic Change 56, pp. 139-165.

Ronald D. Sands and Marian Leimbach (2003): Modeling Agriculture and Land Use in an Integrated Assessment Framework, Climatic Change 56, pp. 185-210.

Ferenc L. Toth, T. Bruckner, H.-M. Füssel, M. Leimbach, G. Petschel-Held (2003): Integrated Assessment of Long-Term Climate Policies: Part I - Model Presentation, Climatic Change 56, pp. 37-56.

Ferenc L. Toth, T. Bruckner, H.-M. Füssel, M. Leimbach, G. Petschel-Held (2003): Integrated Assessment of Long-Term Climate Policies: Part II - Model Results and Uncertainty Analysis, Climatic Change 56, pp. 57-72.

Thomas Bruckner, G. Petschel-Held, M. Leimbach, F.L. Toth (2003): Methodological Aspects of the Tolerable Windows Approach, Climatic Change 56,  pp. 73-89.


Carlo Jaeger, M. Leimbach, C. Carraro, K. Hasselmann,  J.C. Hourcade, A. Keeler, R. Klein (2002): Community Integrated Assessment: Modules for Cooperation, Working Paper, FEEM Nota di Lavoro 53.2002

Ferenc L. Toth, T. Bruckner, H.-M. Füssel, M. Leimbach, G. Petschel-Held, H.J. Schellnhuber (2002): Exploring Options for Global Climate Policy: A New Analytical Framework, Environment 44, pp. 25-34.


Marian Leimbach and Thomas Bruckner (2001): Influence of Economic Constraints on the Shape of Emission Corridors, Computational Economics 18, pp. 173-191.

Selected publications 1994-2000
Marian Leimbach (1999): Klimawandel und Bevölkerungswachstum, in: Kairo+5: Chancen und Hindernisse einer erfolgreichen Bevölkerungspolitik, Aktuelle Fragen der Politik, Heft 58, Konrad-Adenauer Stiftung, Sankt Augustin, S. 61-74.

Thomas Bruckner, G. Petschel-Held, F.L. Toth, H.-M. Füssel, M. Leimbach, H.-J. Schellnhuber (1999): Climate Change Decision-Support and the Tolerable Windows Approach, Environmental Modelling and Assessment 4, pp. 217-234.

Marian Leimbach (1998): Modelling climate protection expenditure, Global Environmental Change 8, pp. 125-139.

Ferenc L. Toth, M. Leimbach, T. Bruckner, G. Petschel-Held (1998): Tolerable Climate windows and Emission Corridors: New results with the ICLIPS model, in:  E. Laege, P.Schaumann (eds.) Energy Models for Decision Support - New Challenges and Possible Solutions, Institut für Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung, Stuttgart, pp. 211-232.

Marian Leimbach (1996): Development of a Fuzzy Optimization Model, Supporting Global Warming Decision-Making, Environmental and Resource Economics 7, pp. 163-192.

Marian Leimbach (1995): Die Nutzung von NEXPERT OBJECT für eine Expertensystem-Modell-Kopplung im Rahmen eines ökologisch orientierten Beratungssystems, in: Bense, H. Bodrow, W. (Hrsg.) Objektorientierte und regelbasierte Wissensverarbeitung, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag GmbH, Heidelberg, S. 241-266.

Marian Leimbach (1994): Expertsystem-model coupling within the framework of an ecological advisory system, Ecological Modelling 75/76, pp. 589-600.



Actual projects



Finished Projects

  • 1996-2000: Integrated Assessment of Climate Protection Strategies (ICLIPS)
  • 2000-2003: Europe in the context of Global Change: Prospects for an innovation-based approach to climate policy
  • 2005-2007 (lead): Cost-optimized climate stabilization (OPTIKS)
  • 2006-2009: Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies: Supporting European Climate Policy (ADAM), EU FP6
  • 2007-2009: Report on Energy and Climate Policies in Europe (RECIPE)
  • 2010-1013 (WP lead): Enhancing robustness and model integration for the assessment of global environmental change (ERMITAGE), EU FP7
  • 2011-2014 (lead): Climate Policy and the Growth Pattern of Nations (CLIPON), BMBF
  • 2011-2014: Impacts Quantification of Global Changes (Global IQ), EU FP7
  • 2017-2021: CO-designing the Assessment of Climate Change Costs (COACCH), EU Horizon 2020
  • 2018-2021 (lead): Mitigation Policies in a Globalized and Developing World: The Role of Structural Change and Distributional Effects (ROCHADE), BMBF