Dr Marian Leimbach



Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK)
T +49 (0)331 288 2556
P.O. Box 60 12 03
14412 Potsdam


  • Integrated assessment of climate change (ICLIPS and REMIND model)
  • Macro-economic modelling
  • Mathematical programming (with GAMS ) of large-scale systems
  • Endogenous economic growth, structural change and capital market imperfections


Koch, J., Leimbach, M. (2023): SSP economic growth projections: Major changes of key drivers in integrated assessment modelling. - Ecological Economics, 206, 107751.

Leimbach, M., Marcolino, M. A., Koch, J. (2023): Structural change scenarios within the SSP framework. - Futures, 150, 103156.

van der Wijst, K.-I., Bosello, F., Dasgupta, S., Drouet, L., Emmerling, J., Hof, A., Leimbach, M., Parrado, R., Piontek, F., Standardi, G., van Vuuren, D. (2023): New damage curves and multimodel analysis suggest lower optimal temperature. - Nature Climate Change, 13, 434-441.


Leimbach, M., Bauer, N. (2022). Capital markets and the costs of climate policies. Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, 24, 3, 397-420.


Baumstark, L., Bauer, N., Benke, F., Bertram, C., Bi, S., Gong, C. C., Dietrich, J. P., Dirnaichner, A., Giannousakis, A., Hilaire, J., Klein, D., Koch, J., Leimbach, M., Levesque, A., Madeddu, S., Malik, A., Merfort, A., Merfort, L., Odenweller, A., Pehl, M., Pietzcker, R. C., Piontek, F., Rauner, S., Dias Bleasby Rodrigues, R., Rottoli, M., Schreyer, F., Schultes, A., Sörgel, B., Sörgel, D., Strefler, J., Ueckerdt, F., Kriegler, E., Luderer, G. (2021): REMIND2.1: transformation and innovation dynamics of the energy-economic system within climate and sustainability limits. - Geoscientific Model Development, 14, 10, 6571-6603.

Sörgel, B., Kriegler, E., Weindl, I., Rauner, S., Dirnaichner, A., Ruhe, C., Hofmann, M., Bauer, N., Bertram, C., Bodirsky, B. L., Leimbach, M., Leininger, J., Levesque, A., Luderer, G., Pehl, M., Wingens, C., Baumstark, L., Beier, F., Dietrich, J. P., Humpenöder, F., von Jeetze, P. J., Klein, D., Koch, J., Pietzcker, R. C., Strefler, J., Lotze-Campen, H., Popp, A. (2021): A sustainable development pathway for climate action within the UN 2030 Agenda. - Nature Climate Change, 11, 8, 656-664.

Sörgel, B., Kriegler, E., Bodirsky, B. L., Bauer, N., Leimbach, M., Popp, A. (2020): Combining ambitious climate policies with efforts to eradicate poverty. Nature Communications 12, 2342. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22315-9

Keppo, I., I Butnar, N Bauer, M Caspani, O Edelenbosch, J Emmerling, P Fragkos, C Guivarch, M Harmsen, J Lefèvre, T Le Gallic, M Leimbach, W McDowall, J-F Mercure, R Schaeffer, E Trutnevyte F Wagner. Exploring the possibility space: taking stock of the diverse capabilities and gaps in integrated assessment models. Environmental Research Letters 16, 053006. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/abe5d8


Foure, J., Aguiar, A., Bibas, R., Chateau, J., Fujimori, S., Lefevre, J., Leimbach, M., Rey-Los-Santos, L., Valin, H. (2020): Macroeconomic drivers of baseline scenarios in dynamic CGE models: review and guidelines proposal. Journal of Global Economic Analysis, 5, 1, 28-62.


Leimbach, M.,  Giannousakis, A. (2019): Burden sharing of climate change mitigation: global and regional challenges under shared socio-economic pathways. Climatic Change 155: 273-291. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-019-02469-8

Warren R.F., Edwards N.R., Babonneau, F., Bacon, P.M., Dietrich, J.-P., Ford, R.W., Garthwaite, P.,Gerten, D., Goswami, S., Haurie, A., Hiscock, K., Holden, P.B., Hyde, M.R., , Joshi, S.R., Kanudia, A., Labriet, M., Leimbach, M., Oyebamiji, O.K., Osborn, T., Pizzileo, B., Popp, A., Price, J.,Riley, G.D., Schaphoff, S., Vielle, M., Wallace, C. (2019): Producing Policy-relevant Science by Enhancing Robustness and model Integration for the Assessment of Global Environmental Change. Environmental Modelling & Software 111, 248-258.

Piontek, F., Kalkuhl, M., Kriegler, E., Schultes, A., Leimbach, M., Edenhofer, O., Bauer, N. (2019): Economic Growth Effects of Alternative Climate Change Impact Channels in Economic Modeling. Environmental and Resource Economics 73, 1357-1385. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10640-018-00306-7


Schultes, A.; Leimbach, M.; Luderer, G.; Pietzker, R. C.; Baumstark, L.; Bauer, N.; Kriegler, E.; Edenhofer, O. (2018): Optimal international technology cooperation for the low-carbon transformation. Climate Policy 18, 1165-1176.

Leimbach, M., Roming, N., Shultes, A., Schwerhoff, G. (2018): Long-term development perspectives of Sub-Saharan Africa under climate policies. Ecological Economics 144, 148-159.


Leimbach, M., Schultes, A., Baumstark, L., Giannousakis, A., Luderer, G. (2017): Solution algorithms of large‐scale Integrated Assessment models on climate change. Annals of Operations Research 255, Issue 1–2, 29–45. doi:10.1007/s10479-016-2340-z.

Leimbach, M., Kriegler, E., Roming, N., Schwanitz, J. (2017). Future growth pattern of world regions – a GDP scenario approach. Global Environmental Change 42, 215-225.

Kriegler, E.; Bauer, N.; Popp, A.; Humpenöder, F.; Leimbach, M.; Strefler, J.; Baumstark, L.; Bodirsky, B.; Hilaire, J.; Klein, D.; Mouratiadou, I.; Weindl, I.; Bertram, C.; Dietrich, J.-P.; Luderer, G.; Pehl, M.; Pietzcker, R.; Piontek, F.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Biewald, A.; Bonsch, M.; Giannousakis, A.; Kreidenweis, U.; Müller, C.; Rolinski, S.; Schultes, A.; Schwanitz, J.; Stevanovic, M.; Calvin, K.; Emmerling, J.; Fujimori, S.; Edenhofer, O. (2017): Fossil-fueled development (SSP5): an energy and resource intensive scenario for the 21st century. Global Environmental Change 42, 297-315. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.05.015

Riahi, K.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Kriegler, E.; Edmonds, J.; O'Neill, B.; Fujimori, S.; Bauer, N.; Calvin, K.; Dellink, R.; Fricko, O.; Lutz, W.; Popp, A.; Cuaresma, J. C.; Samir, K. C.; Leimbach, M.; Jiang, L.; Kram, T.; Rao, S.; Emmerling, J.; Ebi, K.; Hasegawa, T.; Havlik, P.; Humpenöder, F.; da Silva, L. A.; Smith, S.; Stehfest, E.; Bosetti, V.; Eom, J.; Gernaat, D.; Krey, V.; Luderer, G.; Harmsen, M.; Takahashi, K.; Baumstark, L.; Doelman, J.; Kainuma, M.; Klimont, Z.; Maragoni, G.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Obersteiner, M.; Tabeau, A.; Tavoni, M. The shared socioeconomic pathways and their energy, land use, and greenhouse gas emissions implications: An overview. Global Environmental Change 42, 153-168. 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.05.009


Leimbach, M., Labriet, M., Bonsch, M., Dietrich, J.P., Kanudia, A., Mouratiadou, I., Popp, A., Klein, D. (2016): Robust strategies of climate change mitigation in interacting energy, economy and land use systems. Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management 8 (5).


Leimbach, M., Baumstark, L., Luderer, G. (2015): The role of time preferences in explaining the long-term pattern of international trade. Global Economy Journal 15(1): 83-106. DOI: 10.1515/gej-2014-0035


Aboumahboub, T., Luderer, G., Kriegler, E., Leimbach, M., Bauer, N., Pehl, M., Baumstark, L (2014): On the regional distribution of climate change mitigation costs: the impact of delayed cooperative action. Climate Change Economics 5(1), 1440002. doi: 10.1142/S2010007814400028

Klein D., Luderer G., Kriegler E., Strefler J., Bauer N., Leimbach M., Popp A., Dietrich J.P., Humpenöder F., Lotze-Campen H., Edenhofer O. (2013): The value of bioenergy in low stabilization scenarios: an assessment using ReMIND-MAgPIE. Climatic Change 123, 705-718. doi 10.1007/s10584-013-0940-z



Popp, a., M. Krause, J. P. Dietrich, H. Lotze-Campen, M.leimbach, T. Beringer, N. Bauer (2012): Additional CO2 emissions from land use change - forest conservation as precondition for sustainable production of second generation bioenergy. Ecological Economics 74, 64-70.

Bauer, N., L. Baumstark, M. Leimbach (2012): The REMIND-R model: the role of renewables in the low-carbon transformation - first-best vs. second.best worlds. Climatic Change 114, 145-168.

Luderer, G., V. Bosetti, M. Jakob, M. Leimbach, J. Steckel, H. Waisman, O. Edenhofer (2012): The economics of decarbonizing the energy system - results and insights from the RECIPE model intercomparison. Climatic Change 114, 9-37.

Luderer, G., E. deCian, J.-C. Hourcade, M. Leimbach, H. Waisman, O. Edenhofer (2012): On the regional distribution of mitigation costs in a global cap-and-trade system. Climatic Change 114, 59-78.

Huebler, M., L. Baumstark, M. Leimbach, N.Bauer, O. Edenhofer (2012).   An integrated assessment model with endogenous growth, Ecological Economics 83, 118-131.


Leimbach, M.,  A. Popp, H. Lotze-Campen, N. Bauer, J. P. Dietrich, D. Klein (2011): Integrated assessment models - the interplay of climate change, agriculture and land use in a policy tool. In: A. Dinar and  R. Mendelsohn (eds.), Handbook on Climate Change and Agriculture. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, 204-229.

Huebler, M., L. Baumstark, M. Leimbach, N.Bauer, O. Edenhofer (2011).   An Integrated Assessment Model with Endogenous Growth, Working-Paper, PIK, pp.35.

Lüken, M., O.Edenhofer, B. Knopf, M.Leimbach, G. Luderer, N. Bauer (2011). The role of technological availability for the distributive impacts of climate change mitigation policy. Energy Policy 39, 6030-6039.

Popp A., Lotze-Campen, H., Leimbach M., Knopf B.,  Beringer, T., Bauer N., Bodirsky B. On sustainability of bio-energy production: integrating co-emissions from agricultural intensification, Biomass & Bioenergy 35, 4770-4780.


Marian Leimbach, Nico Bauer, Lavinia Baumstark, Ottmar Edenhofer (2010): Mitigation costs in a globalized world: climate policy analysis with REMIND-R. Environmental Modeling and Assessment 15, 155-173.

Marian Leimbach, Nico Bauer, Lavinia Baumstark, Michael Lüken, Ottmar Edenhofer (2010): Technological Change and International Trade: Insights from REMIND-R. The Energy Journal 31, Special Issue, 109-136.

O. Edenhofer, B. Knopf, T. Barker, L. Baumstark, E. Bellevrat, B. Chateau, P. Criqui, M. Isaac, A. Kitous, S. Kypreos, M. Leimbach, K. Lessmann, B. Magne, S. Scrieciu, H. Turton, D. van Vuuren (2010): The Economics of Low Stabilization: Model Comparison of Mitigation Strategies and Costs. The Energy Journal 31, Special Issue on The Economics of Low Stabilization, 11-48.

Ottmar Edenhofer, Brigitte Knopf, Marian Leimbach, Nico Bauer (2010): ADAM's Modeling Comparison Project - Intentions and Prospects. The Energy Journal 31, Special Issue on The Economics of Low Stabilization, 7-10.

Marian Leimbach, Lavinia Baumstark (2010): The impact of capital trade and technological spillovers on climate policies. Ecological Economics 69, 2341-2355.


Marian Leimbach and Klaus Eisenack (2009): A Trade algorithm for Multi-region Models Subject to Spillover Externalities. Computational Economics 33, pp. 107-130.

Marian Leimbach and Ottmar Edenhofer (2007): Technological spillovers in multi-region models: Intertemporal optimization beyond the Negishi approach, Economic Modelling 24, pp. 272-294.

Ina Meyer, Marian Leimbach and Carlo Jaeger (2007): International passenger transport and climate change: A sector analysis in car demand and associated CO2 emissions from 2000 to 2050, Energy Policy 35, pp. 6332-6345.

Jürgen Scheffran and Marian Leimbach (2006): Policy-business interaction in emissions trading between multiple regions, in: Antes, R., Hansjürgens, B., Lemathe, P. (eds.) Emissions Trading and Bussiness, Physica-Verlag, Heidelberg, pp. 353-367.


Marian Leimbach and Carlo Jaeger (2004): A modular approach to Integrated Assessment modeling, Environmental Modelling and Assessment 9, 207-220.



Marian Leimbach (2003): Equity and carbon emissions trading: a model analysis, Energy Policy 31, pp. 1033-1044.

Marrian Leimbach and Ferenc L. Toth (2003): Economic Development and Emission Control over the Long Term: The ICLIPS Aggregated Economic Model, Climatic Change 56, pp. 139-165.

Ronald D. Sands and Marian Leimbach (2003): Modeling Agriculture and Land Use in an Integrated Assessment Framework, Climatic Change 56, pp. 185-210.

Ferenc L. Toth, T. Bruckner, H.-M. Füssel, M. Leimbach, G. Petschel-Held (2003): Integrated Assessment of Long-Term Climate Policies: Part I - Model Presentation, Climatic Change 56, pp. 37-56.

Ferenc L. Toth, T. Bruckner, H.-M. Füssel, M. Leimbach, G. Petschel-Held (2003): Integrated Assessment of Long-Term Climate Policies: Part II - Model Results and Uncertainty Analysis, Climatic Change 56, pp. 57-72.

Thomas Bruckner, G. Petschel-Held, M. Leimbach, F.L. Toth (2003): Methodological Aspects of the Tolerable Windows Approach, Climatic Change 56,  pp. 73-89.


Carlo Jaeger, M. Leimbach, C. Carraro, K. Hasselmann,  J.C. Hourcade, A. Keeler, R. Klein (2002): Community Integrated Assessment: Modules for Cooperation, Working Paper, FEEM Nota di Lavoro 53.2002

Ferenc L. Toth, T. Bruckner, H.-M. Füssel, M. Leimbach, G. Petschel-Held, H.J. Schellnhuber (2002): Exploring Options for Global Climate Policy: A New Analytical Framework, Environment 44, pp. 25-34.


Marian Leimbach and Thomas Bruckner (2001): Influence of Economic Constraints on the Shape of Emission Corridors, Computational Economics 18, pp. 173-191.

Selected publications 1994-2000
Marian Leimbach (1999): Klimawandel und Bevölkerungswachstum, in: Kairo+5: Chancen und Hindernisse einer erfolgreichen Bevölkerungspolitik, Aktuelle Fragen der Politik, Heft 58, Konrad-Adenauer Stiftung, Sankt Augustin, S. 61-74.

Thomas Bruckner, G. Petschel-Held, F.L. Toth, H.-M. Füssel, M. Leimbach, H.-J. Schellnhuber (1999): Climate Change Decision-Support and the Tolerable Windows Approach, Environmental Modelling and Assessment 4, pp. 217-234.

Marian Leimbach (1998): Modelling climate protection expenditure, Global Environmental Change 8, pp. 125-139.

Ferenc L. Toth, M. Leimbach, T. Bruckner, G. Petschel-Held (1998): Tolerable Climate windows and Emission Corridors: New results with the ICLIPS model, in:  E. Laege, P.Schaumann (eds.) Energy Models for Decision Support - New Challenges and Possible Solutions, Institut für Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung, Stuttgart, pp. 211-232.

Marian Leimbach (1996): Development of a Fuzzy Optimization Model, Supporting Global Warming Decision-Making, Environmental and Resource Economics 7, pp. 163-192.

Marian Leimbach (1995): Die Nutzung von NEXPERT OBJECT für eine Expertensystem-Modell-Kopplung im Rahmen eines ökologisch orientierten Beratungssystems, in: Bense, H. Bodrow, W. (Hrsg.) Objektorientierte und regelbasierte Wissensverarbeitung, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag GmbH, Heidelberg, S. 241-266.

Marian Leimbach (1994): Expertsystem-model coupling within the framework of an ecological advisory system, Ecological Modelling 75/76, pp. 589-600.



Actual projects



Finished Projects

  • 1996-2000: Integrated Assessment of Climate Protection Strategies (ICLIPS)
  • 2000-2003: Europe in the context of Global Change: Prospects for an innovation-based approach to climate policy
  • 2005-2007 (lead): Cost-optimized climate stabilization (OPTIKS)
  • 2006-2009: Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies: Supporting European Climate Policy (ADAM), EU FP6
  • 2007-2009: Report on Energy and Climate Policies in Europe (RECIPE)
  • 2010-1013 (WP lead): Enhancing robustness and model integration for the assessment of global environmental change (ERMITAGE), EU FP7
  • 2011-2014 (lead): Climate Policy and the Growth Pattern of Nations (CLIPON), BMBF
  • 2011-2014: Impacts Quantification of Global Changes (Global IQ), EU FP7
  • 2017-2021: CO-designing the Assessment of Climate Change Costs (COACCH), EU Horizon 2020
  • 2018-2021 (lead): Mitigation Policies in a Globalized and Developing World: The Role of Structural Change and Distributional Effects (ROCHADE), BMBF