Impact details: loss of lives and property

impact chain for tropical coastal areas / storms (click nodes to view details):
selected case study results:
Case study reference
Spatial context
Impact description (case study)
Case study recommendations
Badola, R., & Hussain, S. (2005). Valuing ecosystem functions: an empirical study on the storm protection function of Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem, India. Environmental Conservation, 32(1), 85-92. South Asia: India Unprotected villages in the Bhitarkanika area suffered significant damages from the super cyclone that hit the state of Orissa in 1999, related to destruction of houses and agricultural fields. Villages protected by mangroves incurred fewer damages. Mangrove and ecosystem conservation and restoration, early warning systems.

Das, S., & Vincent, J. R. (2009). Mangroves protected villages and reduced death toll during Indian super cyclone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(18), 7357-7360. South Asia: India Several hundred unprotected villages suffered losses of lives during the 1999 super cyclone that struck the state of Orissa. Villages protected by mangroves suffered significantly less losses of lives and property. Although mangroves evidently saved fewer lives than an early warning issued by the government, the retention of remaining mangroves in Orissa is economically justified even without considering the many benefits they provide to human society besides storm-protection services.

Haque, U., Hashizume, M., Kolivras, K. N., Overgaard, H. J., Das, B., & Yamamoto, T. (2012). Reduced death rates from cyclones in Bangladesh: what more needs to be done? Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 90(2), 150-156. South Asia: Bangladesh Bangladesh is especially vulnerable to tropical cyclones, with around 718,000 deaths from them in the past 50 years. However, cyclone-related mortality in Bangladesh has declined by more than 100-fold over the past 40 years, from 500,000 deaths in 1970 to 4,234 in 2007. The main factors responsible for these reduced fatalities and injuries are improved defensive measures, including early warning systems, cyclone shelters, evacuation plans, coastal embankments, reforestation schemes and increased awareness and communication. Modernizing early warning systems, developing shelters and evacuation plans, constructing coastal embankments, maintaining and improving coastal forest cover and raising awareness at the community level. The development of a 500 metre coastal mangrove forest zone will further reduce the vulnerability to cyclones, which is especially important given the likelihood of a rise in sea level and an increase in tropical storm frequency and strength due to climate change. Mapping of areas at high risk of flooding can be prepared to use during evacuations ahead of cyclone-related coastal surges. Planners, policy-makers and development practitioners should endeavour to incorporate local knowledge into environmental and adaptation strategies. The building code in coastal zones should be changed to ensure that concrete houses are raised 3 metres off the ground. More broadly, a more compact development style may be recommended.

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