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Measurement programme

Meteorological parameters observed or measured, observation times and measurement techniques.

Long-term climate series of Meteorological Station Potsdam, starts 01.01.1893

Observation times:

  • 7.08,
  • 14.08,
  • 21.08 Central European Time

Unbroken use of unchanged conventional measurement techniques maintaining a specific fixed observation procedures.

Observation site of the Long-Term Meteorological Station

The following meteorological parameters are observed or measured:

Air temperature

  • (Unaspirated) measurement in a wooden open-air thermometer box at the above three observation times as well as hourly evaluation (thermograph).
  • Extreme values, maximum, minimum.

Relative humidity

  • Determined from the wet-bulb temperature (simple aspirated psychrometer) at the above observation times, hourly evaluation (hygrograph).

Vapour pressure

  • Determined from wet-bulb temperature (simple aspirated psychrometer) at the above observation times.

Minimum near-ground temperature

  • Determined 5 cm above grass height.


  • Direction, strength, peak speeds, momentary and daily values, hourly means.

Ground state

  • 10 different types of conditions

1. dry
2. damp
3. wet/soggy
4. frozen hard
5. ice/glazed frost
6. patchy snow
7. broken snow cover, moist
8. complete snow cover, moist
9. broken snow cover, dry-fluffy
10. complete snow cover, dry-fluffy.

Horizontal visibility

  • Continuous observation.


  • Record-time and daily totals, full-year operating precipitation recorder, hourly analysis of the registered measures between 1. April and 31. October.

Sequence of weather

  • Continuous recording of all phenomena.

Cloud cover

  • Observation at the above three times, type and degree of cover with and without cirrus clouds.

Snow cover

  • Development of snow cover, measurement of total snow depth and new snow depth at 7.00 hrs, determination of water content when snow cover is 1 cm or more deep.

Frost depth

  • Daily measurement on an area kept free of snow.

Soil temperatures

  • Daily measurement at 1.00 hrs, 7.00 hrs, 13.00 hrs and 19.00 hrs Central European Time at depths of 2 cm, 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm, 50 cm and 100 cm.
  • Daily measurement at 13.00 hrs at depths of 2 m, 4 m, and 6 m.
  • On Mondays at 13.00 hrs measurement at 12 m depth.
  • Site consecutively kept free of snow.

Sunshine duration

  • Recording of hourly and daily sums.
  • Sunshine recording by the Campbell-Stokes method using a yellow-colored sphere.

Air pressure

  • Daily recording at the three observation times plus 3-hourly analysis.

Saturation deficit

  • Measurement at 14.00 hrs.

Event days

  • Characterization according to sequence of weather.

Optical phenomena

  • The usual observational program at weather stations, special observations of red sky and afterglow.

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