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ERT Energy Resources and Technologies


The availability of energy resources and technologies is crucial for the future development of the energy sector. Both the scale of risk of climate change as well as the barriers and opportunities to mitigate GHG gases depend on energy resources and technologies. Policies to reduce these GHG emissions can also have unintended side-effects. The role of energy resources and technologies as well as their dependency to climate policies is analyzed with the coupled system of the energy-economy-climate model REMIND and the land-use sector model MAgPIE. Main research foci currently are:

  1. Availability and deployment of fossil fuels with a particular focus on shale gas;
  2. Availability and deployment of bio-energy;
  3. Availability and deployment of wind energy resources;
  4. Short and long-term supply of energy resources;
  5. Carbon Dioxide Removal technologies and their deployment;
  6. Fossil fuel markets and effects of climate policies (leakage, rebound, energy security, air pollution);
  7. Green paradox effects of CO2 emission taxes.

Research Projects

ð  Assessing the Green Paradox

ð  Assessment of Mitigation Pathways and Evaluation of the Robustness of Mitigation Cost Estimates (AMPERE)

ð  Contextualizing Climate Engineering and Mitigation: Complement, Substitute or Illusion? (CEMICS)

ð  Roadmaps towards Sustainble Energy futures (RoSE)

ð  Low Climate Impact Scenarios and the Impliciations of Required Tight Emissions Control Strategies (LIMITS)

ð  30th round of the Stanford Energy Modelling Forum on bioenergy and land-use base mitigation

ð  Shared Socio-Economic Pathways (SSP)


Bauer N, Bosetti V, Calvin K, Hamdi-Cherif M, Kitous A, McCollum DL, Méjean A, Rao S, Hal T, Paroussos L, Ashina S, van Vuuren D (2013) CO2 emission mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate Policies. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, forthcoming.

Bauer N, Mouratiadou I, Luderer G, Baumstark L, Brecha RJ, Kriegler E, Edenhofer O (2013) Global fossil energy markets and Climate Change Mitigation: an analysis with ReMIND. Climatic Change, in press. DOI 10.1007/s10584-013-0901-6

Cherp A, Jewell J, Vinichenko V, Bauer N, DeCian E (2013) Global Energy Security in Long-term Scenarios under Different Climate Policies, GDP Growth and Fossil Fuel Availability Assumptions. Climatic Change, in press. DOI 10.1007/s10584-013-0950-x

Curras TA, Bauer N, Kriegler E, Schwanitz J, Luderer G, Aboumahboub, Giannousakis A, Hilaire J (2013) Carbon leakage in a fragmented climate regime:  The dynamic response of global energy markets. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, in press. DOI 10.1016/j.techfore.2013.10.002

Jewell J, Cherp A, Vinichenko V, Bauer N, Kober T, McCollum D, van Vuuren D, van der Zwaan B (2013) Energy security of China, India, the E.U. and the U.S. under long--‐ term scenarios: Results From six IAMs. Climate Change Economics, accepted for publication.

Klein D, Luderer G, Kriegler E, Strefler J, Nico Bauer N, Leimbach M, Popp A, Dietrich JP, Humpenöder F, Lotze-Campen H, Edenhofer O (2013) The value of bio-energy in low stabilization scenarios: an assessment using ReMIND-MAgPIE. Climatic Change, in press. DOI 10.1007/s10584-013-0940-z

Kriegler E, Riahi K, Bauer N, Schwanitz VJ, Petermann N, Bosetti V, Marcucci A, Otto S, Paroussos L, Rao S, Curras TA, Ashina S, Bollen J, Eom J, Hamdi-Cherif M, Longden T, Kitous A, Méjean A, Schaeffer M, Wada K, Capros P, van Vuuren D, Edenhofer O (2013) Making or breaking climate targets: The AMPERE study on staged accession scenarios for climate policy. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, forthcoming.

McCollum DL, Bauer N, Calvin K, Kitous A, Riahi K (2013): Fossil resource and energy security dynamics in conventional carbon-constrained worlds. Climatic Change, in press. 10.1007/s10584-013-0939-5

Pahle M, Lessmann K, Edenhofer O, Bauer N (2013): Investments in Imperfect Power Markets under Carbon Pricing: A Case Study Based Analysis. The Energy Journal 34(4), doi:10.5547/01956574.34.4.10.

Popp A, Rose S, Calvin K, van Vuuren DP, Dietrich JP, Wise Marshall, Stehfest E, Humpenöder F, Kyle P, van Vliet J, Bauer N, Lotze-Campen H, Klein D, Kriegler E (2013) Land-use transition for bio-energy and climate stabilization: model comparison of drivers, impacts, and interactions with other land use based mitigation options. Climatic Change, in press. DOI 10.1007/s10584-013-0926-x

Zhang S, Bauer N (2013) Utilization of the non-fossil fuel target and its implications in China. Climate Policy 13(3):328-44.

Zhang S, Bauer N, Luderer G, Kriegler E (2013) Role of technologies in energy-related CO2 mitigation in China within a climate-protection world: a scenarios analysis using ReMIND. Applied Energy, in press. DOI 10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.10.039

Wilson C, Grübler A, Bauer N, Krey V, Riahi K (2012): Future Capacity Growth of Energy Technologies: Are Scenarios Consistent with Historical Evidence? Climatic Change 118(2): 381-95. DOI 10.1007/s10584-012-0618-y

Bauer N, Brecha RJ, Luderer G (2012) Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies. PNAS 109(42): 16805-10.

Bauer, N., Baumstark, L., Leimbach, M. (2012): The REMIND-R model: the role of renewables in the low-carbon transformation - first-best vs. second-best worlds. Climatic Change 114:145-68.

Luderer L, Pietzcker RC, Kriegler E, Haller M, Bauer N (2012): Asia’s Role in Mitigating Climate Change:
A Technology and Sector Specific Analysis with ReMIND-R. Energy Economics 34(supp.3), S378-90.

Hübler, M., Baumstark, L., Leimbach, M., Bauer, N., Edenhofer, O. (2012): An Integrated Assessment Model with Endogenous Growth. Ecological Economics 83:118-31.

Haller, M., Ludig, S., Bauer, N. (2012): Decarbonization scenarios for the EU and MENA power system: Considering spatial distribution and short term dynamics of renewable generation. Energy Policy, 47, 282-90,

Creutzig, F., von Stechow, C., Klein, D., Hunsberger, C., Bauer, N., Popp, A., Edenhofer, O. (2012): Can bioenergy assessments deliver? Economics of Energy & Environmental Policy, 1, 2

Haller, M., Ludig, S., Bauer, N. (2012): Bridging the scales: A conceptual model for coordinated expansion of renewable power generation, transmission and storage. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 5, 16, 2687-2695

Popp, A., Krause, M., Dietrich, J. P., Lotze-Campen, H., Leimbach, M., Beringer, T., Bauer, N. (2012): Additional CO2 emissions from land use change - forest conservation as a precondition for sustainable production of second generation bioenergy. Ecological Economics, 74, 64-70

Klein, D., Bauer, N., Bodirsky, B., Dietrich, J. P., Popp, A. (2011): Bio-IGCC with CCS as a long-term mitigation option in a coupled energy-system and land-use model. Energy Procedia, 4, 2933-2940

Ludig, S., Haller, M., Bauer, N. (2011): Tackling long-term climate change together: The case of flexible CCS and fluctuating renewable energy. Energy Procedia, 4, 2580-2587

Ludig, S., Haller, M., Schmid, E., Bauer, N. (2011): Fluctuating renewables in a long-term climate change mitigation strategy. Energy, 36, 11, 6674-6685

Lüken, M., Edenhofer, O., Knopf, B., Leimbach, M., Luderer, G., Bauer, N. (2011): The role of technological availability for the distributive impacts of climate change mitigation policy. Energy Policy, 39(10):6030-39

Popp, A., Dietrich, J. P., Lotze-Campen, H., Klein, D., Bauer, N., Krause, M., Beringer, T., Gerten, D., Edenhofer, O. (2011): The economic potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation with special attention given to implications for the land system. Environmental Research Letters, 6, 034017

Popp, A., Lotze-Campen, H., Leimbach, M., Knopf, B., Beringer, T., Bauer, N., Bodirsky, B. (2011): On sustainability of bioenergy production: integrating co-emissions from agricultural intensification. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35, 12, 4770-4780

Edenhofer, O., Knopf, B., Leimbach, M., Bauer, N. (2010): ADAM's modeling comparison project - intentions and prospects. The Energy Journal, 31, Special Issue 1, 7-10

Leimbach, M., Bauer, N., Baumstark, L., Edenhofer, O. (2010): Mitigation costs in a globalized world: climate policy analysis with REMIND-R. Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 15, 155-173

Leimbach, M., Bauer, N., Baumstark, L., Lüken, M., Edenhofer, O. (2010): Technological change and international trade - Insights from REMIND-R. The Energy Journal, 31, Special Issue 1, 109-136

Bauer, N., Edenhofer, O., Leimbach, M. (2009): Low-stabilisation scenarios and technologies for carbon capture and sequestration In: (Ed.) Energy Procedia ; 1(1), (9th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (Washington,DC 2009)). 4031-4038

Bauer, N., Edenhofer, O., Kypreos, S. (2008): Linking energy system and macroeconomic growth models. Journal of Computational Management Science, 5, 1-2, 95-117

Edenhofer, O., Lessmann, K., Bauer, N. (2006): Mitigation strategies and costs of climate protection: The effects of ETC in the hybrid model MIND. The Energy Journal. A Special issue: Endogenous technological change and the economics of atmospheric stabilisation, 207-222

Edenhofer, O., Bauer, N., Kriegler, E. (2005): The impact of technological change on climate protection and welfare: Insights from the model MIND. Ecological Economics, 54, 2-3, 277-292

Edenhofer, O., Lessmann, K., Bauer, N., Held, H. (2005): Climate protection! A new energy policy?. Vierteljahreshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung, 74, 2, 137-147

Edenhofer, O., Schellnhuber, H. J., Bauer, N. (2004): Der Lohn des Mutes. Gestaltungsspielräume für eine internationale Klima- und Energiepolitik. Internationale Politik, 59, 8, 29-38

Edenhofer, O., Schellnhuber, H. J., Bauer, N. (2004): Risks and opportunities of planet protection. Internationale Politik. Transatlantic Edition, 5, 4, 61-68

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