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Global Energy Systems

The Global Energy System Modeling Group is part of PIK's Research Domain III. We explore sustainable energy transformation strategies with a special focus on:

  • the requirements for as well as benefits and risks of climate change mitigation in line with internationally agreed long-term climate objectives, such as the goal of limiting global warming to well below 2°C;
  • the adequacy of current national, European and international climate and energy policies in the light of these long-term targets;
  • the potential contribution of renewable energy sources to the decarbonization effort, e.g. in the context of the German Energiewende;
  • the environmental footprint (climate and non-climate) of the energy system, and integrated sustainability strategies.

Our main research tool is the integrated assessment model REMIND (detailed description via ADVANCE wiki) which allows us to study the complex interactions between the energy system, the economy as well as the climate and environment.


GES March2014


    Research focus

    • Exploration of costs and feasibility of ambitious climate change mitigation targets
    • Implications of delays in climate mitigation action
    • Potentials and limitations in renewable energy deployment
    • The interaction of climate change mitigation, bioenergy demand, and land use
    • Decarbonization strategies for the transport sector
    • Drivers of energy demand and the potentials for energy efficiency improvements

    Recent research projects and community activities

    • Advanced Model Development and Validation for the Improved Analysis of Costs and Impacts of Mitigation Policies (ADVANCE)
    • Assessment of Mitigation Pathways and Evaluation of the Robustness of Mitigation Cost Estimates (AMPERE)
    • Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP)
    • Low Climate Impact Scenarios and the Impliciations of Required Tight Emissions Control Strategies (LIMITS)
    • 27th round of the Stanford Energy Modeling Forum (EMF27)
    • Roadmaps towards Sustainble Energy futures (RoSE) - completed
    • Scenarios on the feasibility of emission reductions towards limiting climate change to 2°C (commissioned by the German Federal Environment Agency) - completed
    • Asian Modeling Exercise (AME): The contribution of Asia to the global mitigation challenge - completed
    • Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies: Supporting European Climate Policy (ADAM) - completed
    • Report on Energy and Climate Policies in Europe (RECIPE) - completed


    Selected publications

      • Aboumahboub T, Luderer G, Kriegler E, et al (2014) On the regional distribution of climate mitigation costs: the impact of delayed cooperative action. Clim Change Econ 05:1440002. doi: 10.1142/S2010007814400028

      • Pietzcker RC, Longden T, Chen W, et al. (2014): Long-term transport energy demand and climate policy: Alternative visions on transport decarbonization in energy-economy models. Energy 64:95–108. doi: 10.1016/
      • Bertram C, Johnson N, Luderer G, et al (2015a) Carbon lock-in through capital stock inertia associated with weak near-term climate policies. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 90, Part A:62–72. doi: 10.1016/j.techfore.2013.10.001

      • Klein D, Luderer G, Kriegler E, et al. (2013): The value of bioenergy in low stabilization scenarios: an assessment using REMIND-MAgPIE. Climatic Change 1–14. doi: 10.1007/s10584-013-0940-z.
      • Luderer G, Bertram C, Calvin K, et al. (2013): Implications of weak near-term climate policies on long-term mitigation pathways. Climatic Change 1–14. doi: 10.1007/s10584-013-0899-9.
      • Luderer G, Krey V, Calvin K, et al. (2013): The role of renewable energy in climate stabilization: results from the EMF27 scenarios. Climatic Change 1–15. doi: 10.1007/s10584-013-0924-z.
      • Luderer G, Pietzcker RC, Bertram C, et al. (2013): Economic mitigation challenges: how further delay closes the door for achieving climate targets. Environ Res Lett 8:034033. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/8/3/034033.
      • Strefler J, Luderer G, Aboumahboub T, Kreigler E. (2013): Economic impacts of alternative greenhouse gas emission metrics: A model-based assessment, Climatic Change.
      • Ueckerdt F, Hirth L, Luderer G, Edenhofer O (2013): System LCOE: What are the costs of variable renewables? Energy 63:61–75. doi: 10.1016/
      • Bauer N, Brecha RJ, Luderer G (2012): Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies. PNAS 109:16805–16810. doi:10.1073/pnas.1201264109.
      • Luderer G, Bosetti V, Jakob M, Leimbach M, Steckel J, Waisman H, Edenhofer O (2012): The economics of decarbonizing the energy system—results and insights from the RECIPE model intercomparison. Climatic Change 114:9–37. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0105-x.
      • Luderer G, Pietzcker RC, Kriegler E, Haller M, Bauer N (2012): Asia’s role in mitigating climate change: A technology and sector specific analysis with ReMIND-R. Energy Economics. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2012.07.022.
      • Lüken M, Edenhofer O, Knopf B, Leimbach M, Luderer G, Bauer N (2011): The role of technological availability for the distributive impacts of climate change mitigation policy. Energy Policy 39:6030–6039. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2011.07.002.
      • Edenhofer O, Knopf B, Barker T, Baumstark L, Bellevrat E, Chateau B., Criqui P, Isaac M, Kitous A, Kypreos S, Leimbach M, Lessmann K, Magne B, Scrieciu S, Turton H, Vuuren DP van (2010): The Economics of Low Stabilization: Model Comparison of Mitigation Strategies and Costs. The Energy Journal 31, 11–48.


      For all publications click here.

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