Policy Reports

Authors: Dallas Burtraw, Jim Bushnell, Christian Gambardella, Michael Pahle

Published: April 2019

The objectives of the report are threefold: 1. To provide general background and a history of climate and electricity policy in Germany and California, describing important characteristics of their electricity systems, including regulation and market design, actors, and resources. 2. To investigate how markets and policies have evolved and improved, and how those trends have been affected by efforts to promote and accommodate increasing shares of renewables. 3. To identify options for the way forward to achieve greater integration of renewables and identify future inflection points where changes in regulatory policies or market design might become essential to achieve this outcome.


Authors: Christian Flachsland, Michael Pahle, Dallas Burtraw, Ottmar Edenhofer, Milan Elkerbout, Carolyn Fischer, Oliver Tietjen, Lars Zetterberg

Published: October 2018

This policy insight outlines different perspectives on the past performance of the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) in terms of its allowance price, analyses how the recent reform responded to related challenges , and considers the case for introducing a carbon price floor in the EU ETS. The main part of the paper identifies five myths in the debate about an EU ETS price floor and critically challenges them. It concludes by discussing potential entry points for introducing a carbon price floor in the context of the upcoming EU climate policy process. The policy report builds on the workshop EU ETS Reform: Taking Stock and Examining Carbon Price Floor Options, held at CEPS in Brussels on July 3, 2018. The workshop was cosponsored by CEPS and the AHEAD and Mistra Carbon Exit projects. While the paper draws on insights from workshop discussions, its views are solely those of the authors.


Authors: Joanna Gubman, Michael Pahle, Karoline Steinbacher & Dallas Burtraw

Published: December 2016

The future is electric and California and Germany are currently behind the wheel. After spending years as more of a conception than a reality, electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming a global trend bound to grow beyond niche demand. California and Germany stand out as two key markets for both the development and purchase of EVs, particularly because of their visions or strategies for transportation summarized under the concepts Verkehrswende (transportation transition) and transportation electrification respectively. Therefore, this report compares the California and Germany EV markets and regulatory frameworks, taking stock of the current state and upcoming opportunities and challenges analyzed through the lens of the technology innovation system (TIS) framework. The report employs a comparative methodology based on a review of the literature, media, and online material and 16 semi-structured expert interviews conducted in summer 2016 with policy analysts and stakeholders (industry and public sector) in Germany. It aims to inform policy makers and stakeholders in one jurisdiction about developments in the other jurisdiction, and to identify best practices and mutual lessons for future policies and other jurisdictions. Given that California is at a more advanced stage, this work particularly addresses German policy makers and stakeholders, who may find insights from California PEV policies and market developments valuable.

Michael Pahle also contributed to the report Renewable Electricity Integration: A Review of Policy Developments in Germany and Their Applicability to California (Link) by M. Grady Mathai-Jackson, an Affiliate at CLEE and Lecturer at Berkeley Law.