Dynamics of the climate system
    (Lecture with exercises)
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    Introduction 1. Changing climate dynamics
    2. Energy budget and greenhouse effect

    Dynamical systems

    3. Feedbacks
    4. Equilibria, stability and bifurcations

    Ocean and atmosphere

    5. Field equations of fluid dynamics
    6. Large-scale ocean dynamics: general equations & approximations
    7. Large-scale ocean dynamics: real currents - THC, AABW, ACC & horizontal gyres
    8. Large-scale atmospheric dynamics: mid-latitudes & quasi-geostrophic approximation
    9. Large-scale atmospheric dynamics: baroclinic instability & zonally averaged
    10. Tropical phenomena: El-Nino Southern Oscillation and monsoon circulation


    11. Sea ice equations and phenomenolgy
    12. Ice sheet dynamics: Greenland - the shallow ice approximation (SIA)
    13. Ice shelf dynamics: Antarctica - the shallow shelf approximation (SSA)

    Discussion 14. Climate change - the big picture

    Core literature

    "Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast", David Archer
    "Dynamic Meterology", J.R. Holton
    "Introduction to physical oceanography", George Mellor
    Lecture on land ice dynamics, Ralf Greve

    Additional literature

    "Der Klimawandel", Stefan Rahmstorf und John Schellnhuber.
    "Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics", Adrian E. Gill
    "Geophysical Fluid Dynamics", Joseph Pedlowsky
    "Physics of Climate", Jose P. Peixoto und Abraham H. Oort
    Habilitationthesis on land ice dynamics, Ralf Greve
    "Fundamentals of glacier dynamics", C.J. van der Veen
    "The physics of glaciers", W.S.B. Paterson
    "Climate System Modeling", Kevin E. Trenberth (ed.)
    "Global Physical Climatology", Dennis L. Hartmann
    "Physik unserer Umwelt: Die Atmosphäre", Walter Roedel


    "KlimaLounge", German weblog
    "RealClimate", English weblog
    "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)"
    "Minimal Glacier Models", J. Oerlemans
    "Millenium Ecosystem Report"

    last update: April 2013