Stability of the Atlantic Subpolar Gyre

    Subpolar Gyre
    Bistability of Subpolar Gyre
    • Paleodata from the North Atlantic indicate that the Atlantic gyre circulation flipped from a weak to strong state about 8000 years ago. A summary can be found here. (Born & Levermann, 2010).
    • In a coupled climate model three self-amplifying feedbacks were identifed that can explain such nonlinear behaviour (Levermann & Born, 2007).
    • Potential reconstruction indicates the existence of two stable states in a number of global climate models from CMIP-5 (Born et al., 2013).
    • The multistability combined with external perturbation by wind stress and surface freshwater flux can explain the observed enhanced variability of the SPG (Mengel et al., 2012).


    A. Born, T.F. Stocker, C.C. Raibel, A. Levermann
    Is the Atlantic subpolar gyre bistable in comprehensive coupled climate models?
    Climate Dynamics 40 (2013), 2993-3007, DOI-10.1007/s00382-012-1525-7.
    bibtex entry - endnote entry

    M. Mengel, A. Levermann, C. F. Schleussner, A. Born
    Enhanced subpolar-gyre variability through baroclinic threshold in the Atlantic
    Earth System Dynamics 3 (2012), 189-197, 10.5194/esd-3-189-2012.
    bibtex entry - endnote entry

    M. Montoya, A. Born, A. Levermann
    Reversed North Atlantic gyre dynamics in present and glacial climates
    Climate Dynamics 36 (2011), 1107-1118.
    bibtex entry - endnote entry

    The 8.2k event
    A. Born and A. Levermann
    The 8.2 ka event: abrupt transition of the subpolar gyre toward a modern North Atlantic circulation
    Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems G3, 11 (2010), Q06011.
    » Supplementary information
    bibtex entry - endnote entry

    B. Marzeion, A. Levermann, J. Mignot
    Sensitivity of North Atlantic subpolar gyre and overturning to stratification-dependent mixing: response to global warming
    Climate Dynamics, 34 (2010), 661-668.
    bibtex entry - endnote entry

    T. Hattermann and A. Levermann
    Response of Southern Ocean circulation to global warming may enhance basal ice shelf melting around Antarctica
    Climate Dynamics 35 (2010), 741-756.
    bibtex entry - endnote entry

    A. Born, A. Levermann, J. Mignot
    Sensitivity of the Atlantic ocean circulation to a hydraulic overflow parameterisation in a coarse resolution model: response of the subpolar gyre
    Ocean Modeling, 27 (2009), 130-142.
    bibtex entry

    A. Levermann and A. Born
    Bistability of the Atlantic subpolar gyre in a coarse resolution climate model
    Geophysical Research Letters, 34 (2007), L24605.
    bibtex entry

    Press release
    Atlantic surface circulation qualifies as .tipped. element (25 Jun. 2010)