Theory of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    Understanding AMOC stability
    • Combining the simplified models by Henry Stommel (1961) and Anand Gnanadesikan (1999) shows that a collapse of the Atlantic overturning is possible independet of whether it is wind- or mixing driven (Fürst & Levermann, 2012).
    • A noteworthy effect is the possibility that the overturning increases before it collapses, with strong implications for monitoring this important circulation (Ehlert & Levermann, 2014).


    Increase prior to collapse
    D. Ehlert & A. Levermann
    Mechanism for potential strengthening of Atlantic overturning prior to collapse
    Earth System Dynamics Discussion 5 (2014), 29-62, doi:10.5194/esdd-5-29-2014.
    bibtex entry - endnote entry

    G. Feulner, S. Rahmstorf, A. Levermann, S. Volkwardt
    On the origin of the surface air temperature difference between the hemispheres in Earth's present-day climate
    Journal of Climate 26 (2013), 7136-7150, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00636.1.
    bibtex entry - endnote entry

    C. F. Schleussner, J. Runge, J. Lehmann, A. Levermann
    The role of the North Atlantic overturning and deep-ocean for multi-decadal global-mean-temperature variability
    Earth System Dynamics 5 (2014), 103-115, doi:10.5194/esd-5-103-2014.
    bibtex entry - endnote entry

    Collapse independent of driver
    J.J. Fürst and A. Levermann
    Minimal model of a wind- and mixing-driven overturning - threshold behaviour for both driving mechanisms
    Climate Dynamics 38 (2012), 239-260, DOI: 10.1007/s00382-011-1003-7.
    bibtex entry - endnote entry

    C. F. Schleussner, K. Frieler, M. Meinshausen, J. Xin, A. Levermann
    Emulating Atlantic overturning strength for low emission scenarios: consequences for sea-level rise along the North American east coast
    Earth System Dynamics 2 (2011), 191-200.
    bibtex entry - endnote entry

    What is missing in Gnanadesikan's model?
    A. Levermann and J.J. Fürst
    Atlantic pycnocline theory scrutinized using a coupled climate model
    Geophysical Research Letters, 37 (2010), L14602.
    bibtex entry - endnote entry

    J. Schewe and A. Levermann
    The role of meridional density gradients for a wind-driven overturning
    Climate Dynamics, 34 (2010), 547-556.
    bibtex entry - endnote entry

    B. Marzeion and A. Levermann
    Stratification-dependent mixing may increase sensitivity of a wind-driven Atlantic overturning to surface freshwater flux
    Geophysical Research Letters, 36 (2009), L20602.
    bibtex entry

    M. Montoya and A. Levermann
    Surface wind stress threshold for glacial Atlantic overturning
    Geophysical Research Letters, 35 (2008), L03608. » Supporting online material.
    » Highlighted in EOS, February 2008.
    bibtex entry

    B. Marzeion, A. Levermann, J. Mignot
    The role of stratification-dependent mixing for the stability of the Atlantic overturning in a global climate model
    Journal of Physical Oceanography, 37 (2007), 2672-2681.
    bibtex entry

    J. Mignot, A. Ganopolski, A. Levermann
    Atlantic subsurface temperatures: response to a shut-down of the overturning circulation and consequences for its recovery
    Journal of Climate, 20 (2007), 4884-4898.
    bibtex entry

    Weak AMOC weakens more under warming
    A. Levermann, J. Mignot, S. Nawrath, S. Rahmstorf
    The role of northern sea ice cover for the weakening of the thermohaline circulation under global warming
    Journal of Climate, 20 (2007), 4160-4171.
    » Highlighted in Nature Geosciences, 19th September 2007.
    bibtex entry

    Review article
    T. Kuhlbrodt, A. Griesel, M. Montoya, A. Levermann, M. Hofmann, S. Rahmstorf
    On the driving processes of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation
    Reviews of Geophysics 45 (2007),  RG2001,  1-32.
    bibtex entry

    J. Mignot, A. Levermann, A. Griesel
    A decomposition of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation into physical components using its sensitivity to vertical diffusivity
    Journal of Physical Oceanography, 36 (2006),  636-650.
    bibtex entry

    Something is missing in Gnanadesikan's model.
    A. Levermann and A. Griesel
    Solution of a Model for the Oceanic Pycnocline Depth: Scaling of Overturning Strength and Meridional Pressure Difference
    Geophysical Research Letters 31 (2004),  L17302.
    bibtex entry