Impact details: shoreline erosion

impact chain for tropical coastal areas / sea-level rise (click nodes to view details):
selected case study results:
Case study reference
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Impact description (case study)
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Ng, W.-S., & Mendelsohn, R. (2006). The economic impact of sea-level rise on nonmarket lands in Singapore. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 35(6), 289-296. Southeast Asia: Singapore Beach erosion due to sea-level rise will move the shoreline, shifting the beach profile closer inland. One method preventing beach erosion is continual beach nourishment, which preserves beaches in their current conditions and discourages further erosion. Another approach is to build seawalls and back-fill sand behind these hard structures. Conserving mangroves and/or allowing them to migrate landwards is another option in places where this ecosystem is found.

Rahman, A. F., Dragoni, D., & El-Masri, B. (2011). Response of the Sundarbans coastline to sea level rise and decreased sediment flow: a remote sensing assessment. Remote Sensing of Environment, 115(12), 3121-3128. South Asia: India Sea level rise and alteration of water flows of the Himalayan headwaters are among the major disturbances threatening the Sundarbans coastal areas. Accretion rate has declined in the recent years but erosion rate has remained relatively high. As a result the delta front has undergone a net erosion of similar to 170 km2 of coastal land in the 37 years of the study period (based on Landsat images spanning from 1973 to 2010). These numbers are significantly higher than the previously reported rates and magnitudes of erosion in the area. Maintenance of environmental stability, preservation of the remaining natural mangrove forests, increase in the forest cover through afforestation and social forestry programs, and support an enhanced productivity of mangrove forests to meet essential local and national needs as mentioned under the Forest Act concerning mangrove management. The land-gain areas long the Sundarbans coastlines can be targeted for enhanced afforestation with appropriate salt-tolerant mangrove species. The land-loss areas can be targeted for selective dike building (with proper consideration of down-current erosion) to prevent further land loss.

Volonté, C. R., & Arismendi, J. (1995). Sea-level rise and Venezuela: potential impacts and responses. Journal of Coastal Research, 285-302. South America Venezuela Assuming a no-protection response and a one-meter rise in sea level, nearly 6,000 km² of land could be lost, mainly by inundation of the Orinoco delta. Land loss due to erosion is minor compared to inundation, but it could damage Venezuela's coastal oil and other infrastructures, as well as several coastal urban areas. Nourishment of recreational beaches and construction of seawalls along 200 km of developed coastlines combined with harbor upgrade could cost U.S. $1.0 to $1.5 billion for a one-meter rise in sea level. Assuming this investment occurred linearly over 50 years (2051 to 2100), this represents annual expenditure of 0.46% to 0.70% of Venezuela's gross national investment (in 1990). While Venezuela's developed coastline appears vulnerable to accelerated sea-level rise, increasing planning and coastal management efforts could avoid increasing future vulnerability, particularly for the large coastal frontage (>2,000 km) where little or no development exists today.

Schleupner, C. (2007). Spatial assessment of sea level rise on Martinique's coastal zone and analysis of planning frameworks for adaptation. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 11(2), 91-103. Central America / Caribbean: Martinique At a sea level rise of 50 cm, one fourth of Martinique's coastline will be affected by erosion and one fifth of the islands surface will have high probability to get flooded during coastal hazards. Saltwater intrusion and erosion are serious consequences of SLR. More than 60% of the human coastal resources are at risk at present conditions and this number will increase if sea level continues to rise. Beach tourism, the main economic activity in Martinique, will be greatly affected. An optimal and no-regret adaptation measure is mangrove forest conservation and rehabilitation.

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