Supplementary Movies:
Quasi-resonant amplification of planetary waves and recent Northern Hemisphere weather extremes

Petoukhov, V., Rahmstorf, S., Petri, S., Schellnhuber, H. J. (2013):
Quasi-resonant amplification of planetary waves and recent Northern Hemisphere weather extremes.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, published ahead of print March 1, 2013.
[doi:10.1073/pnas.1222000110]
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1222000110
  • Data Lineage
  • Supplementary Movies
  • Figures in the paper, and supplementary figures
  • References
  • Data Lineage

    Meridional Wind Data

    Data was downloaded from
    IRI - The International Research Institute for Climate and Society
    IRI/LDEA Climate Data Library
    DAILY from NOAA NCEP-NCAR CDAS-1: Climate Data Assimilation System I; NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis Project; outline
    Intrinsic / PressureLevel / v : meridional wind data

    Reference for the data set: see below

    Selection:

    Data for the movies was downloaded on Nov 29 2011 13:44
    37.5N to 57.5 N
    180 W to 180 E
    300 mb to 300 mb
    May-Sep 1980-2011
    

    Processing

    Processing with CDO to create different aggregations over time intervals.
    For the running-mean aggregations, the date information shown is the date of the middle contributing time step in the original data.
    Calculation of fft(), ifft(), dct(), Spectrum Amplitudes and Phases with Matlab.
    Calculation of meridional averages and visualisation with ferret.

    Zonal Wind Data

    Data was downloaded from
    IRI - The International Research Institute for Climate and Society
    IRI/LDEA Climate Data Library
    DAILY from NOAA NCEP-NCAR CDAS-1: Climate Data Assimilation System I; NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis Project; outline
    Intrinsic / PressureLevel / u : zonal wind data

    Reference for the data set: see below

    Selection

    Data was downloaded on Aug 07 2012 09:51
    37.5N to 57.5 N
    180 W to 180 E
    300 mb to 300 mb
    Jul-Aug 1980-2011
    

    Processing

    As above.

    Temperature Data

    Data was downloaded from
    IRI - The International Research Institute for Climate and Society
    IRI/LDEA Climate Data Library
    DAILY from NOAA NCEP-NCAR CDAS-1: Climate Data Assimilation System I; NCEP-NCARReanalysis Project; outline
    Intrinsic / PressureLevel / temp : Temperature data

    Reference for the data set: see below

    Selection

    Data was downloaded on Aug 09 2012 11:58
    37.5N to 57.5 N
    180 W to 180 E
    300 mb to 300 mb
    Jun-Aug 1980-2011
    

    Processing

    As above.

    Topography Data

    Data was downloaded from
    IRI - The International Research Institute for Climate and Society
    IRI/LDEA Climate Data Library
    NOAA NGDC GLOBE: Gridded 1-km, quality controlled global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data from the Global Land One-km Base Elevation (GLOBE) Project.

    Reference for the data set: see below

    Selection

    Data was downloaded on Aug 06 2012 10:31
    (179.9958W) to (179.9958E) by 0.008333334 N= 43200 pts :grid
    (35.00417N) to (59.99583N) by 0.008333334 N= 3000 pts :grid
    

    Supplementary Movies

    Movie 1

    Meridional windfield on 300 mb, between 37.5N and 57.5N, 180W to 180E.
    For every July of the years 1980-2011, the daily means are aggregated into monthly means.
    This movie shows a synopsis of the meridional windfield, its meridional average, and of the discrete spectrum amplitude and phase of the meridional average.
    Each picture corresponds to July of one year, thus it is not a continous time series, but should best be viewed image after image.
    For compactness, the presentation as movie format was choosen instead of a collection of 32 single images.
    (32s) as AVI (4.1 MB) as OGG (1.2 MB) as WEBM (292 KB)

    Movie 2

    Same as Movie 1, but for Augusts.
    (32s) as AVI (4.1 MB) as OGG (1.2 MB) as WEBM (297 KB)

    Movie 3

    Amplitude of waves number 5, 6, 7, 8 of the meridional average of meridional wind at 300 mb, between 37.5N and 57.5N, 180W to 180E.
    The daily means are aggregated into 15-day running means during June-August of 1980-2011.
    The date shown is the date of the middle contributing time step in the original data.
    (31.04s) as AVI (2.9 MB) as OGG (1.9 MB) as WEBM (413 KB)

    Movie 4

    15-day running means of Derivative over time of phases of waves number 5, 6, 7, 8 of the meridional average of meridional wind at 300 mb, between 37.5N and 57.5N, 180W to 180E.
    The daily values are aggregated into 15-day running means during June-August of 1980-2011.
    The date shown is the date of the middle contributing time step in the original data.

    The derivative was computed as difference between preceding and following time step, divided by time difference.
    Because of the periodicity of the wave, a large phase change in one direction is equivalent to a small change in the opposite direction. Thus, the changes were ``wrapped'' to the interval -PI .. +PI.
    (31.04s) as AVI (4.2M) as OGG (3.4M) as WEBM (767K)

    Movie 5

    Daily values of Derivative over time of phases of waves number 5, 6, 7, 8 of the meridional average of meridional wind at 300 mb, between 37.5N and 57.5N, 180W to 180E.
    See description of Movie 4 about the calculation of the derivatives.
    (31.04s) as AVI (4.8M) as OGG (4.1M) as WEBM (947K)


    o

    Figures in the Paper

    For convenience, also the figures are shown below. They were also created based on data from The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project.

    Figure 1

    Meridional windfield on 300 mb, between 37.5N and 57.5N, 35W to 45E, averages of daily means over three different timespans.

    planwaveresonance/Fig1_PRSP_new.gif
    meridional wind (m/s)
    and as PDF (13.7x15.1cm) and as EPS

    Figure 2

    Meridional windfield on 300 mb, between 37.5N and 57.5N, 180W to 180E, averages of daily means over four different timespans.

    planwaveresonance/Fig2_PRSP_new.gif
    meridional wind (m/s)
    and as PDF (19x13.8cm) and as EPS

    Figure 3

    Time series 1980-2011 of amplitudes of fourier components of monthly means of meridionally averaged meridionally wind at 300 mb, between 37.5N and 57.5N, 35W to 45E, for wave number (A) 7, (B) 6, (C) 8. July values in green, August values in blue.
    Inclined dashed straight lines show linear regressions;
    horizontal dashed lines show 1.5 standard deviation from the 1980-2011 monthly climatology (90% confidence level). (Unfortunately, in the PNG format shown here, the dashed lines appear solid. The appearance is correct in the EPS and PDF formats.)

    planwaveresonance/extfig3_PRSP_new.png
    and as PDF (15x15cm) and as EPS

    A variation of Figure 3

    Separate figures for July and August data, each showing linear regression, standard deviation, as well as envelope curves that mark the 90% confidence level for linear regression.

    planwaveresonance/extfig3_PRSP_new-July.png
    and as PDF (15x15cm) and as EPS
    planwaveresonance/extfig3_PRSP_new-August.png
    and as PDF (15x15cm) and as EPS

    Figure 4

    Latitudinal distributions of Ks2a2 for two time periods of extreme weather, and `normal' August 1993. See paper text for further explanations.

    planwaveresonance/extfig4_PRSP_new.png
    and as PDF (7.97x7.97cm) and as EPS
    (Unfortunately, in the PNG format shown above, the dashed lines appear solid. However, note the thin vs. filled arrow heads.
    The appearance is correct in the EPS and PDF formats.)

    Figure 5

    Latitudinal distribution for zonally averaged monthly averaged (A, top) zonal wind at 300 hPa and (B, bottom) temperature at 850 hPa, for 1980-2011 August climatology, for extreme August 2003, and for 'normal' August 1993.

    planwaveresonance/fig5.gif
    and as PDF (19.1x17.5cm) and as EPS


    Supplementary Figure S1

    Mid-latitude meridional wind velocity on different height levels, averaged over two different time periods.

    planwaveresonance/Fig_S1_PRSP_new.gif
    and as PDF (19.3x9.1cm) and as EPS

    Supplementary Figure S2

    Similar to Supplementary Figure S1, but for different time periods.

    planwaveresonance/Fig_S2_PRSP_new.gif
    and as PDF (19.3x9.1cm) and as EPS

    Supplementary Figure S3

    The meridional windfield as above, but averaged over 31 days in summer 2012.

    planwaveresonance/Fig2_PRSP_new_2012.gif
    and as PDF (19x13.8cm) and as EPS

    Supplementary Figure S4

    Normalized Effective Forcing between 37.5N and 47.5N

    Effective forcing due to temperature and orography, normalized to its climatology, and weighted with cosine of latitude, averaged over the latitudinal range 37.5N - 47.5N.
    The figure shows the amplitudes for waves 6,7,8 plotted over time, monthly values for July (A) and for August (B).
    Wind and temperature data from NOAA NCEP-NCAR CDAS-1 Reanalysis. Topography data from GLOBE.

    planwaveresonance/fig_S4.gif
    and as PDF (17.8x17.5cm) and as EPS

    References

    The authors wish to acknowledge use of the Ferret program for analysis and graphics in this paper. Ferret is a product of NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. (Information is available at http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/Ferret/)


    Web page created by S. Petri

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